BAQ,  December  2006
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BAQ, December 2006. CONTRIBUTION OF MOUNT MERAPI VOLCANO EMISSION DURING QUIESCENT STATE TO BACKGROUND SO 2 CONCENTRATION IN D.I. YOGYAKARTA PROVINCE. Regina Dhevita Purie and Driejana Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia. Background.

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Regina dhevita purie and driejana faculty of civil and environmental engineering

BAQ, December 2006

CONTRIBUTION OF MOUNT MERAPI VOLCANO EMISSION DURING QUIESCENT STATE TO BACKGROUND SO2 CONCENTRATION IN D.I. YOGYAKARTA PROVINCE

Regina Dhevita Purie and Driejana

Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering,

Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia


Background

Background

  • SO2 emission from Merapi volcano might contribute to SO2 ambient air concentration in the surrounding area

  • Volcanic emission during quiescent state might have impact to environment, however monitoring to emission and its impacts have not got much attention


Objectives

Objectives

  • To examine the spatial distribution of SO2 from Mt. Merapi during normal activity within the volcano surrounding area

  • To observe its potential impact to the environment


Boundary conditions

Boundary conditions

  • The point source emission is assumed to be continuous

  • The dispersion prediction is carried out within an area of 13.5 km X 13.5 km surrounding Merapi including Kabupaten Magelang, Kabupaten Boyolali, Kabupaten Klaten in Central Java and Kabupaten Sleman in DI Yogyakarta


Regina dhevita purie and driejana faculty of civil and environmental engineering

Methodology

  • Collecting primary data from Volcanology Agency for emission data (Q) and plume rise (∆h) from COSPEC measurement in 2002, wind speed, wind direction and atmospheric stability from the Met Office, and topographical data such as the height of mountain and the altitude of receptor area

  • Modeling based on Gaussian Plume Model for daily average concentration during dry season period (April – September)

  • Ambient air sampling of SO2 to validate the model

  • Observing the evidence of SO2 impact to surrounding area of Mt.Merapi


Regina dhevita purie and driejana faculty of civil and environmental engineering

Boyolali

Magelang

Klaten

DIY

Mt. Merapi

Study Area


Results and discussion

Results and discussion

  • The prevailing winds were from south, southwestern and southeastern directions

  • The daily dispersion patterns are found to be similar

  • Six days (a day in every month) are taken as the examples for the predicted dispersion pattern


Regina dhevita purie and driejana faculty of civil and environmental engineering

April 5th

May 23th

June 7th

Kab. Boyolali

Kab. Boyolali

Kab. Boyolali

Kab. Magelang

Kab. Magelang

Kab. Magelang

Kab. Klaten

Kab. Klaten

Kab. Klaten

DIY

DIY

DIY

Mt. Merapi

The dispersion pattern of SO2

SO2 unit of concentration: µg.m-3


Regina dhevita purie and driejana faculty of civil and environmental engineering

Agst 13th

July 12th

Sept 15th

Kab. Boyolali

Kab. Boyolali

Kab. Boyolali

Kab. Klaten

Kab. Magelang

Kab. Magelang

Kab. Magelang

Kab. Klaten

Kab. Klaten

DIY

DIY

DIY

Mt. Merapi

The dispersion pattern of SO2

Unit concentration

of SO2: µg.m-3


Regina dhevita purie and driejana faculty of civil and environmental engineering

  • The average concentration of SO2 from April to September 2002 was 23.09 µg.m-3 ,with the maximum daily concentration SO2 of 490.72 µg.m-3and the minimum daily concentration of 2.77 µg.m-3

  • The maximum concentrations mostly fall within the distance of 0.6 – 3.4 km from the center of the volcano


Receptor points

Kab. Boyolali

Kab. Magelang

Mt. Merapi

Kab. Klaten

Kab. Sleman, DIY

Receptor points

The areas where SO2 deposition are most likely to happen


Visible indication of the so 2 impacts to plantation

Necrosis & colourosis

colourosis

colourosis

Visible indication of the SO2 impacts to plantation

The damage of plantation, such as cabbage,

tobacco, tea, and the root of tobacco plant


The impact so 2 to soil and tobacco plant

9170

Tobacco plantation at Dusun Jerakah

(438.138,36; 9.170.352,19; 1291,5)

Soil Condision at Dusun Jerakah

(438.138,36; 9.170.352,19; 1291,5)

9165

9160

0435

0440

The impact SO2 to soil and tobacco plant


Regina dhevita purie and driejana faculty of civil and environmental engineering

Conclusions and Recommendation

  • Inventory emission from volcano is necessary, not only for the purpose of monitoring the volcanic activity, but also for mitigation of the emission impact

  • The locations of maximum concentration were found to be at the same grid locations, covering an area of about 400 to 800 hectares on the distance of 0.6 – 3.4 km in the north-eastern, northern and western of Mount Merapi.

  • The maximum concentrations of SO2 were found in Kabupaten Magelang, Kabupaten Boyolali and a little part of Kabupaten Klaten area. According to the land use, these areas can be considered as ecological sensitive area.


Regina dhevita purie and driejana faculty of civil and environmental engineering

  • Indications of environmental impact caused by volcanic emission of Merapi have been seen, particularly on plantation and the form of soil.

  • Specific mitigation plans therefore might need to be developed for this area, to reduce the impacts to the minimal.


Thank you

Thank You!


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