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Lecture 7. Introduction to Environmental Engineering. M.B. with Multiple Materials . Multiple compounds into and out of our “black box” Remember: you must have strong fundamentals and organizational skills to keep track of all components. M.B. with Multiple Materials.

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lecture 7

Lecture 7

Introduction to Environmental Engineering

m b with multiple materials
M.B. with Multiple Materials
  • Multiple compounds into and out of our “black box”
  • Remember: you must have strong fundamentals and organizational skills to keep track of all components
m b with multiple materials1
M.B. with Multiple Materials
  • Great Examples in this section
  • Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers form the Ohio River in Pittsburgh, PA

Allegheny, 340 cfs, 250 mg/L

Ohio River, ?, ?

Monongahela, 460 cfs, 1500 mg/L

m b with multiple materials2
M.B. with Multiple Materials
  • Accum. = In – Out + Prod. – Consum.

0 = [(340 cfs)(250 mg/L) + (460 cfs)(1500 mg/L)] – (800 cfs)(C)

C = 969 mg/L

m b with multiple materials3
M.B. with Multiple Materials
  • Sometimes the “black box”
      • Is an actual box, like a rectangular reactor in WWTP’s or WTP
      • Is a theoretical representation of space, like the “box model” in air pollution
        • Width, length, and a theoretical mixing depth over a city
        • Wind blows through mixing with the pollutants
        • Example 3.7 is a good example of SO2 pollution of the air
        • Donora, PA, 27 deaths, “Donora Episode”
materials separator
Materials Separator
  • Goal
      • To split a mixed feed material into the individual components by exploiting some difference in the material properties
      • Example: clarifiers in wastewater treatment
materials separator1
Materials Separator
  • Recovery and Purity

x1 y1

xo yo

1

0

2

x2 y2

materials separator2
Materials Separator
  • Recovery and Purity
      • If Rx and Ry equal 100%, then the separator is perfect
    • Purity
      • We want to make sure only a small portion of y1 is ending up in product stream 1
materials separator3
Materials Separator
  • Example 3.9 – Sedimentation

Qo=30m3/hr, Co = 25 mg/L

Qi=40m3/hr, Ci = 5000 mg/L

Qu=?, Cu = ?

materials separator4
Materials Separator
      • Qu = 40 m3/hr –30 m3/hr = 10 m3/hr
      • 0 = CiQi – (CuQu + QoCo) + 0 – 0
  • 0 = (5000 mg/L)(40 m3/hr) – [(Cu(10 m3/hr)+ (30 m3/hr)(25 mg/L)
  • Cu = 19,900 mg/L
materials separator5
Materials Separator
  • In some situations, purity and recovery will not give you the information you need to choose between two alternatives
  • Worrell-Stessel Effectiveness
  • Rietema Effectiveness
complex processes with multiple materials
Complex Processes with Multiple Materials

Most Env. Eng. Processes involve a series of unit operations, with different individual functions

  • M.B.’s can solve internal processes
  • M.B.’s can help determine the order of unit processes
complex processes with multiple materials1
Complex Processes with Multiple Materials
  • General Rules for process train Placement
      • Decide what material property to exploit, this becomes the code.
      • Decide how the code is to activate the switch.
      • Try to separate easiest materials first.
      • Try to separate the highest quantity material first.
      • If possible do not add anything to promote separation.
complex processes
Complex Processes
  • Activated Sludge System
    • Waste Activated Sludge
  • Anaerobic Digestion
    • Volatile Solids
    • Digested sludge
    • Secondary digester
    • Supernatant
    • Gases
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