Inclusive education for children with disability at kindergartens in central highlands in vietnam
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Inclusive Education for children with disability at Kindergartens in Central Highlands in Vietnam. Anneke Maarse - Pham Dzung Medical Committee Netherland Vietnam. Vietnam & disability information. Population: about 87 million 63 provinces, 687 districts, 11013 communes

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Inclusive education for children with disability at kindergartens in central highlands in vietnam

Inclusive Education for children with disability at Kindergartens in Central Highlands in Vietnam

Anneke Maarse - Pham Dzung

Medical Committee Netherland Vietnam

Vietnam disability information
Vietnam & disability information

  • Population: about 87 million

  • 63 provinces, 687 districts, 11013 communes

  • GDP per capita: about 1000 USD

  • Disability prevalence:

    about 6% - 15%



Central Highlands

Children with disabilities
Children with disabilities

  • Total number of children: 28 mil – 32% population

  • Total number of CWD:

    • CWD (6-17 years old) in estimation 2006: 995,000 (3.8%)

    • CWD (0-17) last update by UNICEF: 1.2 mil – 4.2%

  • Distribution by main types of disability

    • Learning difficulty 28%

    • Mobility difficulty 19%

    • Visual impairment 14%

    • Speech difficulty 13%

    • Hearing impairment 12%

Vietnam s commitment for education for cwd
Vietnam’s commitment for Education for CWD

  • Second nation that signed UNCRC 1989

  • Issued the Ordinance on Disability 1998, chapter 3 for Education.

  • Signed to join BIWAKO Millenium Frame work (BMF) – 2002

  • 2007: Signed the UNCRP

Education system in Vietnam

Ministry of Education and Training

National level

Univeristies, Colleges

Provincial level

Province People Committee

Provincial Dept Education and Training

District level

District People Committee

District Dept of Education and Training

High school


Commune level

Commune People Committee


3-5 year old

Primary Edu




Education for cwd
Education for CWD

  • Special Education: Since 1930s

  • Inclusive education: introduced by INGO since 2000s

  • Rate of CWD going to school: 24.2%

  • Rate of CWD attending Pre-school is very low

Medical committee netherland vietnam
Medical Committee Netherland Vietnam

  • Since 1968

  • Fields of current supports: health care for vulnerable groups, comprehensive support for people with a disability.

  • Purpose of activities: improvement of health and quality of life of disadvantaged groups

Project area
Project area

  • Dak Lak: moutainous province in Central Highlands

  • Population: 1.8 mil, 44 minorities.

  • Administration: 13 districts, 165 communes

  • 78% of population are doing agriculture

  • 32% of population living in remote areas

  • Rate of CWD: 11.2% much higher than average proportion.

  • Rate of CWD went to school before project (1999) : about 11%


  • CBR network

  • Good relationship between MCNV and authorities

  • Commitment of local authorities

  • WB’s programme for education for disadvantaged children

Barriers for education for cwd
Barriers for education for CWD

  • Geographical disadvantage

  • Limited awareness about disability

  • Teacher lack understanding and skills to provide education to CWD

  • Lack of supportive conditions to facilitate the education CWD

  • Poor health situation of CWD

  • CWD come from poor families

Mcnv approach to ie
MCNV approach to IE

  • Comprehensive

  • Sustainable

  • Lifelong support


  • Support Disabled People Clubs and CWD’s parent association at community

  • Capacity building for these self-help groups in advocay, peer-education and counselling.

  • Community awareness

Livelihood support
Livelihood support

  • Provide poor CWD’s families with micro-credit

  • Train them to develop a household income generating plan

  • Follow up to support householdes in using the loan

Health services
Health services

  • Home-based rehabilitation

  • Referral network

  • Early detection based on Community Based Rehablitation network

  • Provide early intervention if need: operation, assistive devices

  • Counselling and advice to parents, teacher

Inclusive education
Inclusive Education

  • Promoting positive attitudes

  • Promoting inclusive learning environments

  • Promoting early intervention

  • Supporting appropriate policy development

  • Supporting change of system in education

Positive teacher


Alternative methods

of teacher education



School for all

Appropriate teaching

Aids and equipment

Flexible teaching


Supportive policies

Parent and



Well supported

teacher and schools

Education for cwd under 6
Education for CWD under 6

  • Home (community) based

  • Kindergarten based

  • Centre based: Support Centre

What is a support centre
What is a Support Centre?

  • Organisation to support and develop Inclusive Education in the province

  • Functions and tasks

    • Human resource development of IE network

    • Early intervention for CWD

    • Special education classes

    • Coaching and support visits to local schools and families

    • Counselling to parents, teachers and other actors involved in IE

    • Audiological testing, make ear moulds for hearing – aids

    • Advice Education Dept of Province about policy and mechanism regarding to IE implementation

Capacity building and field support
Capacity building and field support

  • Monthly visits by resource teachers from the centre to follow up individual education plan

  • Joined by teachers from district level to develop their capacity to be a resource teacher

  • Regular exchange meeting for teachers

  • Regular exchange among parents of CWD

Early intervention
Early intervention

  • To enhance the development of children with developmental delay, enabling condition for inclusion

  • Parents are key in Early Intervention

  • The support centre has expertise and rooms for EI; capacity of kindergartens is also developed to provide EI

Main achievements in dak lak
Main achievements in Dak Lak

  • CWD from 3 to 6 years- old attend IE Kindergarten: 63%

  • For CWD under 3 years old, 75% improve their skills through home-based early intervention services

  • There are 69, out of 99 Kindergartens (70%) in the project area that are have a welcoming and accessible learning environment for CWD

  • Support Centre is well funtioning in line with its tasks, including training for management and teachers of IE kindergartens

  • Early detection and early intervention is integrated as a function of Kindergartens

  • IE is part of mainstream education in province


IE for CWD needs a comprehensive approach

Parents play an essential role

Focus on children from 0-6 years old with a developmental delay is vital for succesful Inclusive Education

Inclusive education requires a change in the system of education