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1. 2. 3. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS :. IT IS A TECHNICAL DRAWING IN WHICH DIFFERENT VIEWS OF AN OBJECT ARE PROJECTED ON DIFFERENT REFERENCE PLANES OBSERVING PERPENDICULAR TO RESPECTIVE REFERENCE PLANE. Different Reference planes are. Horizontal Plane (HP),

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slide1

1

2

3

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS:

IT IS A TECHNICAL DRAWING IN WHICH DIFFERENT VIEWS OF AN OBJECT

ARE PROJECTED ON DIFFERENT REFERENCE PLANES OBSERVING PERPENDICULAR TO RESPECTIVE REFERENCE PLANE

Different Reference planes are

Horizontal Plane (HP),

Vertical Frontal Plane ( VP )

Side Or Profile Plane ( PP)

And

Different Views are Front View (FV), Top View (TV) and Side View (SV)

FV is a view projected on VP.TV is a view projected on HP.SV is a view projected on PP.

IMPORTANT TERMS OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS:

Planes.

Pattern of planes & Pattern of views

Methods of drawing Orthographic Projections

slide2

PLANES

1

PRINCIPAL PLANES

HP AND VP

AUXILIARY PLANES

Auxiliary Inclined Plane

(A.I.P.)

Auxiliary Vertical Plane

(A.V.P.)

Profile Plane

( P.P.)

A.I.P.

A.V.P.

 to Vp

&

 to Hp

 to Hp &  to Vp

slide3

THIS IS A PICTORIAL SET-UP OF ALL THREE PLANES.

ARROW DIRECTION IS A NORMAL WAY OF OBSERVING THE OBJECT.

BUT IN THIS DIRECTION ONLY VP AND A VIEW ON IT (FV) CAN BE SEEN.

THE OTHER PLANES AND VIEWS ON THOSE CAN NOT BE SEEN.

TO MAKE THOSE PLANES ALSO VISIBLE FROM THE ARROW DIRECTION,

A) HP IS ROTATED 900 DOUNWARD

B) PP, 900 IN RIGHT SIDE DIRECTION.

THIS WAY BOTH PLANES ARE BROUGHT IN THE SAME PLANE CONTAINING VP.

Click to view Animation

On clicking the button if a warning comes please click YES to continue, this program is

safe for your pc.

PP

VP

Y

X

HP

ACTUAL PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS

OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

DRAWN IN

FIRST ANGLE METHOD OF PROJECTIONS

PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS (First Angle Method)

2

PROCEDURE TO SOLVE ABOVE PROBLEM:-

Y

X

FV

LSV

Y

X

TV

PP IS ROTATED IN RIGHT SIDE 900

AND

BROUGHT IN THE PLANE OF VP.

HP IS ROTATED DOWNWARD 900

AND

BROUGHT IN THE PLANE OF VP.

slide4

TV

FV

Y

X

Y

X

FV

TV

L

G

3

Methods of Drawing Orthographic Projections

Third Angle Projections Method

Here views are drawn

by placing object

in 3rd Quadrant.

( Tv above X-y, Fv below X-y)

First Angle Projections Method

Here views are drawn

by placing object

in 1st Quadrant

( Fv above X-y, Tv below X-y )

SYMBOLIC

PRESENTATION

OF BOTH METHODS

WITH AN OBJECT

STANDING ON HP ( GROUND)

ON IT’S BASE.

NOTE:-

HP term is used in 1st Angle method

&

For the same

Ground term is used

in 3rd Angle method of projections

slide5

FIRST ANGLE

PROJECTION

FOR T.V.

PP

VP

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

FV

LSV

Y

X

TV

HP

IN THIS METHOD,

THE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE

SITUATED IN FIRST QUADRANT

MEANS

ABOVE HP & INFRONT OF VP.

P.P.

V.P.

S.V.

F.V.

OBJECT IS INBETWEEN

OBSERVER & PLANE.

OBJECT

ACTUAL PATTERN OF

PLANES & VIEWS

IN

FIRST ANGLE METHOD

OF PROJECTIONS

slide6

FOR T.V.

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

THIRD ANGLE

PROJECTION

IN THIS METHOD,

THE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE

SITUATED IN THIRD QUADRANT

( BELOW HP & BEHIND OF VP. )

PLANES BEING TRANSPERENT

AND INBETWEEN

OBSERVER & OBJECT.

P.P.

V.P.

OBJECT

TV

X

Y

S.V.

F.V.

FV

LSV

ACTUAL PATTERN OF

PLANES & VIEWS

OF

THIRD ANGLE PROJECTIONS

slide7

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

{ MACHINE ELEMENTS }

OBJECT IS OBSERVED IN THREE DIRECTIONS.

THE DIRECTIONS SHOULD BE NORMAL

TO THE RESPECTIVE PLANES.

AND NOW PROJECT THREE DIFFERENT VIEWS ON THOSE PLANES.

THESE VEWS ARE FRONT VIEW , TOP VIEW AND SIDE VIEW.

FRONT VIEW IS A VIEW PROJECTED ON VERTICAL PLANE ( VP )

TOP VIEW IS A VIEW PROJECTED ON HORIZONTAL PLANE ( HP )

SIDE VIEW IS A VIEW PROJECTED ON PROFILE PLANE ( PP )

FIRST STUDY THE CONCEPT OF 1ST AND 3RD ANGLE

PROJECTION METHODS

AND THEN STUDY NEXT 26 ILLUSTRATED CASES CAREFULLY.

TRY TO RECOGNIZE SURFACES

PERPENDICULAR TO THE ARROW DIRECTIONS

slide8

FIRST ANGLE

PROJECTION

FOR T.V.

PP

VP

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

FV

LSV

Y

X

TV

HP

IN THIS METHOD,

THE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE

SITUATED IN FIRST QUADRANT

MEANS

ABOVE HP & INFRONT OF VP.

P.P.

V.P.

S.V.

F.V.

OBJECT IS INBETWEEN

OBSERVER & PLANE.

OBJECT

ACTUAL PATTERN OF

PLANES & VIEWS

IN

FIRST ANGLE METHOD

OF PROJECTIONS

slide9

FOR T.V.

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

THIRD ANGLE

PROJECTION

IN THIS METHOD,

THE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE

SITUATED IN THIRD QUADRANT

( BELOW HP & BEHIND OF VP. )

PLANES BEING TRANSPERENT

AND INBETWEEN

OBSERVER & OBJECT.

P.P.

V.P.

OBJECT

TV

X

Y

S.V.

F.V.

FV

LSV

ACTUAL PATTERN OF

PLANES & VIEWS

OF

THIRD ANGLE PROJECTIONS

slide10

x

y

1

FOR T.V.

S.V.

F.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW

L.H.SIDE VIEW

FOR F.V.

FOR S.V.

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

TOP VIEW

slide11

FOR T.V.

FOR F.V.

X

Y

FOR S.V.

2

S.V.

F.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW

L.H.SIDE VIEW

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide12

X

Y

3

FOR T.V.

S.V.

F.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

L.H.SIDE VIEW

FRONT VIEW

FOR F.V.

FOR S.V.

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide13

FOR T.V.

X

Y

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

4

S.V.

F.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

L.H.SIDE VIEW

FRONT VIEW

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide14

FOR T.V.

X

Y

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

5

F.V.

S.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW

L.H.SIDE VIEW

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide15

FOR T.V.

X

Y

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

6

S.V.

F.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW

L.H.SIDE VIEW

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide16

FOR T.V.

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

X

Y

7

S.V.

F.V.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

L.H.SIDE VIEW

FRONT VIEW

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide17

FOR T.V.

Z

STUDY

ILLUSTRATIONS

50

X

Y

20

FOR F.V.

25

25

20

8

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide18

FOR T.V.

X

Y

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

9

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW

L.H.SIDE VIEW

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide19

FOR T.V.

X

Y

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

10

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW

L.H.SIDE VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

TOP VIEW

slide20

FOR T.V.

X

Y

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

11

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW

L.H.SIDE VIEW

TOP VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide21

FOR T.V.

X

Y

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

12

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

L.H.SIDE VIEW

FRONT VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

TOP VIEW

slide22

FOR T.V.

Z

STUDY

ILLUSTRATIONS

35

FV

35

10

y

x

FOR F.V.

20

30

10

40

70

TV

O

13

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide23

FOR T.V.

Z

STUDY

ILLUSTRATIONS

FV

10

SV

30

30

30

10

30

x

y

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

TV

14

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide24

FOR T.V.

Z

STUDY

ILLUSTRATIONS

FV

SV

y

x

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

10

40

60

40

TV

60

15

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide25

FOR T.V.

ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL

FV

SV

10

y

x

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

40

60

TOP VIEW

40

60

16

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide26

30 SQUARE

40

20

50

X

Y

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

20

10

30

60

F.V.

S.V.

O

17

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW

L.H.SIDE VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW FV AND SV OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide27

FOR T.V.

FV

40

10

O

45

30 D

X

Y

FOR F.V.

10

50

O

80

TV

18

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide28

FOR T.V.

40

FV

O

10

X

Y

100

10

25

FOR F.V.

TV

10

10

30

25

O

30 R

20 D

19

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide29

FOR T.V.

30

FV

RECT.

SLOT

10

50

35

10

Y

X

20 D

FOR F.V.

TV

60 D

30 D

O

20

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

TOP VIEW

slide30

10

25

15

25

40

10

25

FOR S.V.

FOR F.V.

25

O

O

80

25

S.V.

F.V.

21

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW FV AND SV OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide31

FOR T.V.

450

30

FV

40

X

Y

FOR F.V.

30 D

TV

40

15

40

O

22

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide32

HEX PART

30

20

FOR S.V.

20

FOR F.V.

40

20

O

50

20

15

O

30

60

100

23

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW FV ABD SV OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

FRONT VIEW

L.H.SIDE VIEW

slide33

FOR T.V.

40

20

F.V.

30

10

X

Y

O

10

FOR F.V.

30

10

30

O

80

24

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

FRONT VIEW

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

T.V.

TOP VIEW

slide34

10

10

15

25

25

X

Y

FOR S.V.

O

10

50

FOR F.V.

FV

LSV

25

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW FV AND LSV OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

slide35

PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN

DRAW FV AND SV OF THIS OBJECT

BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD

10

20

20

30

FOR S.V.

15

FOR F.V.

10

15

O

15

Y

X

30

15

50

LEFT S.V.

26

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

F.V.

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