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Orthographic Projection PowerPoint Presentation

Orthographic Projection

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### OrthographicProjection

Also called Multiview Projection

OBJECTIVE…

- Introduce the basic principles of orthographic projection
- Construct an orthographic Multiview of a simple object
- Visualize 3-D objects from multiview orthographic drawings

IT IS A 3-D WORLD

- Height
- Width
- Depth

The three dimensions are

Pairing the dimensions with one another creates three planes used in orthographic projection

- Profile Plane = Height + Width
- Horizontal Plane = Width + Depth
- Vertical Plane = Height + Depth

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

- Ortho – Greek word meaning perpendicular
- Orthographic literally means perpendicular view
- To look straight at an objects hides a dimension
- Show the views of a 3-D object projected in 2-D
- Most common is the front top and side views

MULTIVIEWS(third angle of projection)

- Picture an object in the center of a glass cube
- Project the surfaces onto the faces of the glass cube

Multiviews:

- Unfold the cube so that it lies in a single plane
- Multiple views of the object are now visible on the same plane in space

There are SIX PRINCIPLE VIEWS

- Front, Top, Right, Left, Bottom & Back
- In this class we know which view we are looking at by it’s relationship to the front side view – NEVER LABEL YOUR VIEWS in this class!

There are SIX PRINCIPLE VIEWS

- Although there are six principle views you only need to draw the ones that are necessary to define the object
- It is common to show three principle views in this class, front, top & side

MULTIVIEWS:

When the glass cube is unfolded:

- FRONT VIEW: Height and Width (Profile Plane)
- TOP VIEW: Width and Depth (Horizontal Plane)
- RIGHT SIDE VIEW: Depth and Height (Vertical Plane)

MULTIVIEWS: Align views with each other (features project from one view to the next)

POINTS, LINES & SURFACES from one view to the next)

- Point – a location in space - often the intersection of at least two object lines
- When projecting a point to the adjacent view, it is always on a straight line parallel to the plane of projection
- Such that when projecting a point from the front side view to the top side view it would be directly above it

POINTS, LINES & SURFACES from one view to the next)

- (Object) Lines – represent the intersection of two surfaces & are projected by using their endpoints
- Four Types of object lines (three are straight)
- Normal – (Horizontal & Vertical) appear true length on two planes of projection and as a point in the third
- Inclined – parallel to one plane of projection (true size) an inclined to the other two (foreshortened)
- Oblique – not parallel, not perpendicular to any plane of projection (foreshortened in all three planes of projection)
- Curved (not straight) – only circles and arcs of circles can be projected using its endpoints

POINTS, LINES & SURFACES from one view to the next)

- Four types of surfaces
- Normal – Given three views, a normal surface will appear true in size & shape in one and as an edge in the other two
- Inclined –will appear foreshortened in two views & the edge view will be neither horizontal or vertical
- Oblique – will appear foreshortened in all three view
- Curved – Cylinders appear as a circle in one view and as rectangle in the adjacent view

- This lesson will focus on normal surfaces

MULTIVIUEWS: from one view to the next)NORMAL SURFACES

- Parallel to one of the three planes of projection in which it appears true in size & shape

Later we will even work with rounded surfaces!

MULTIVIUEWS: from one view to the next)NORMAL SURFACES

- Parallel to one of the three planes or two panes of glass in our transparent cube
- Show true size and shape in the view they are parallel to
- Shown as edges in other principle views

MULTIVIUEWS: from one view to the next)LINE TYPES

- When two surfaces meet it creates a line (edge)
- When that edge is visible we use an object line (a clear, crisp & dark solid line)
- When that edge is behind a surface (not visible) we use a hidden line (a clear, crisp & dark dashed line)
- When a hidden line is directly behind an object line the object line takes precedent

Selecting the Front Side View from one view to the next)

Is the front of the car shown in the front side view?

Why or why not?

- Profile View
- Best view that shows shape or contour

- Most details
- Fewest hidden lines

- Natural or functioning position
- Principle Surface area parallel to plane of projection
- Minimize depth

Select an appropriate front side view and begin to hand sketch a multiview (Front, Top, side) of this part now.

Do not worry about scale but do your best to project (align) points, lines and surfaces to the adjacent views .

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