Motivation
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Motivation. Definitions Content models Process models Putting it into action. Need. Tension. Drive. Search. Sat. Tension Reduction. FB. What is Motivation?. “Willingness to exert effort to reach organizational goals” The force that starts, sustains, and directs activity. Ability.

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Motivation

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Motivation

Motivation

  • Definitions

  • Content models

  • Process models

  • Putting it into action


What is motivation

Need

Tension

Drive

Search

Sat.

Tension

Reduction

FB

What is Motivation?

  • “Willingness to exert effort to reach organizational goals”

  • The force that starts, sustains, and directs activity


Why does it matter

Ability

Motivation

Why Does it Matter?

Performance


Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation

  • Where does our motivation come from?

    • Extrinsic = external rewards

    • Intrinsic = rewards from the task itself

  • Application to domains of human activity


Content vs process

Content vs. Process

  • Content

    • What motivates us?

  • Process

    • How are we motivated?


Content models

Content Models

  • Maslow

  • Herzberg

  • McClelland

  • Theory X, Theory Y


Maslow s pyramid

Safety

Physiological

Maslow’s Pyramid

Self-Actualization

Esteem

Social


Herzberg s two factor model

Herzberg’s Two Factor Model

  • Ideas developed through work with engineers and scientists

  • Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are separate, not two ends of a single scale

  • One group of factors prevents dissatisfaction, but does not cause satisfaction

  • Another group of factors cause satisfaction

  • Question: does satisfaction lead to performance?

    • Traditionally, we said Yes

    • However, performance may cause satisfaction

    • But, satisfaction is related to turnover


Hygiene vs motivators

Hygiene vs. Motivators


Mcclelland needs

McClelland - Needs

  • Three basic human needs

    • Achievement

    • Power

    • Affiliation

  • N Ach  performance

  • Tested on large scale basis

    • N Ach (children’s stories)

    • National performance (utility usage)


Theories x and y

Theory X

Theory Y

Little ambition

Dislike work

Avoid responsibility

Self-directed

Enjoy work

Accept responsibility

Theories X and Y


Motivating with money

Motivating with Money

  • Does money matter?

    • According to Herzberg, no

    • But…..


Process models

Process Models

  • Behavior modification

  • Goal setting

  • VIE

  • Equity Theory

  • Job Characteristics Model


Behavior modification

Behavior Modification

  • Basic psychological theory

    • Pavlov

    • Skinner

  • Behavior is a function of its consequences

  • Some say….assumes that people have little free will


Basic terms

Basic Terms

  • Positive reinforcement

  • Negative reinforcement

  • Extinction

  • Punishment

Shaping:

Reward close approximations, then closer approximations, until desired response is achieved


How it works

Consequence

Reward

Punishment

Positive

Reinforcement

Punishment

Apply

Contingency

Withhold

Negative

Reinforcement

Extinction

How it Works


Schedules of reinforcement

FIXED INTERVAL

Reinforcement occurs at fixed intervals of time: the bimonthly paycheck.

VARIABLE INTERVAL

Reinforcement occurs at random intervals of time: the supervisor visits the employee, on no fixed or set schedule, to praise at that time.

FIXED RATIO

Reinforcement occurs after a set number of behaviors: piece rate pay.

VARIABLE RATIO

Reinforcement occurs after a random number of behaviors: gambling, especially slot machines.

Schedules of Reinforcement


Using reinforcement

Using Reinforcement

  • If workers are positively reinforced for their high performance, they will work harder.

  • If workers receive immediate reinforcement for their hard work, they will work harder than if their reinforcement is delayed.

  • Frequent reinforcement of positive behavior and infrequent reinforcement of negative behavior results in higher performance.

  • Workers will work harder if their reinforcements for work are somewhat random.

  • If a positive work behavior is never reinforced, it will be extinguished.

  • Reinforcements may be of several different kinds and must be tied to the individual worker.

  • If workers are rewarded for even small increases in performance, then greater performance may result.


Goal setting

Goal Setting

  • Goals lead to performance

  • Specific goals lead to higher performance than general goals

  • Performance increases in proportion to goal difficulty -- but goals should be attainable

  • Goals must be accepted

  • Goals should be linked to feedback and rewards


What is a good goal

What is a Good Goal ?

  • Specific

  • Measurable

  • Attainable

  • Realistic, rewarded

  • Timely

  • Feedback

  • Integrated, Intermediate

  • Challenging, clear


Using goal setting

Using Goal Setting

  • Workers work harder if they have goals to strive for.

  • Workers work harder if they have goals that are high and challenging, rather than easy or unattainable.

  • If goals are clear and understandable, workers will work harder.

  • If workers have a chance to participate in setting goals, they will be more committed to attaining those goals.

  • If larger goals are broken down into short-term goals, workers will receive more frequent feedback about goal accomplishment and, thus, strive harder to meet those goals.

  • If employees know what the consequences of goal accomplishment are (for themselves and the organization), they will strive harder to meet those goals.

  • If individual goals are integrated with organizational goals, workers will work harder.

  • If progress toward goal accomplishment is measurable and feedback is given, the workers will strive harder to meet those goals.

  • Workers work harder if goals are specific, rather than general or “do your best”.


Motivation

The Complex Model….

V

Perceived

Equity of

Rewards

Value of

Reward

Skills, Abilities

and Traits

Extrinsic

Rewards

Performance Goals

E2

Satisfaction

Effort

E1

Role

Perception

Intrinsic

Rewards

Perceived

Effort-Reward

Probability


A simplified model

A Simplified Model

Individual

Effort

Individual

Performance

Expectancy

=Effort-Performance

Organizational

Rewards

=Performance-Reward

=Attractiveness

Individual

Goals


Equity theory

Equity Theory

  • Employees must believe they are treated fairly, or motivation will wane. Equity theory maintains that employees evaluate their inputs (IS) in relation to their outcomes (OS) as compared to the inputs (IO) and outcomes (OO) of others to determine fairness.


Responses to perceived inequity

Responses to Perceived Inequity

  • Change perception of own outputs

  • Change perception of own inputs

  • Change own outputs (ask for raise)

  • Change own inputs (work less)

  • Change perception of others’ inputs or outputs

  • Choose a different referent

  • Withdraw from situation (quit)


Job characteristics model

Core Job

Dimensions

Critical

Psychological States

Personal and

Work Outcomes

Skill Variety

Task Identity

Task Significance

High Internal

Work Motivation

Experienced

Meaningfulness

of the Work

High-Quality

Work Performance

Experienced

Responsibility for

Work Outcomes

Autonomy

High Satisfaction

With the Work

Knowledge of the

Actual Results of the

Work Activities

Low Absenteeism

And Turnover

Feedback

Job Characteristics Model

Strength of Employee Growth Need


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