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SOURCES OF POLLUTION TO THE ARCTIC: INSIGHTS FROM ARCTAS AND SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS. Daniel J. Jacob, Harvard University ARCTAS Mission Scientist. ARCTIC RESEARCH OF THE COMPOSITION OF THE TROPOSPHERE FROM AIRCRAFT AND SATELLITES (ARCTAS).

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sources of pollution to the arctic insights from arctas and satellite observations
SOURCES OF POLLUTION TO THE ARCTIC:INSIGHTS FROM ARCTAS AND SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS

Daniel J. Jacob, Harvard University

ARCTAS Mission Scientist

slide2

ARCTIC RESEARCH OF THE COMPOSITION OF THE TROPOSPHERE FROM AIRCRAFT AND SATELLITES (ARCTAS)

A NASA contribution to IPY and the international POLARCAT initiative focused on four scientific themes:

1. Long-range transport of pollution to the Arctic(arctic haze,

tropospheric ozone, mercury)

2. Boreal forest fires(implications for atmospheric composition and climate)

3. Aerosol radiative forcing(from arctic haze, boreal fires, surface-deposited

black carbon, and other perturbations)

4. Chemical processes(with focus on radical chemistry and implications for ozone, aerosols, mercury)

NASA DC-8

NASA Satellite A-Train

NASA P-3B

NASA B-200

Spring deployment, 1-20 April 2008: Fairbanks and Barrow

Summer deployment, 26 June – 13 July 2008: Cold Lake (Alberta) and Yellowknife

slide3
ARCTAS Field Campaign Strategy: Maximize the value of satellite data for improving models of atmospheric composition and climate

Satellite instruments: CALIOP, GOME-2, IASI, OMI, TES, MLS, SCIAMACHY, MODIS, MISR, MOPITT, AIRS

  • Aerosol optical depth, properties
  • H2O, CO, methane, ozone, NO2, HCHO, SO2, BrO

Calibration and Validation

Retrieval development

Correlative information

Small scale structure and processes

Aircraft: DC-8, P-3B, B200

  • Comprehensive in situ chemical and aerosol
  • measurements
  • Active remote sensing of ozone, water vapor
  • and aerosol optical properties
  • Passive radiance measurements

Error characterization

Data assimilation

Diagnostic studies

Models: CTMs, GCMs, ESMs

  • Source-receptor relationships for pollution
  • Inverse modeling for estimating emissions
  • Aerosol radiative forcing
  • Detailed chemical processing
slide4

ARCTAS PLATFORMS

DC-8 P-3B B-200

Chemistry and Aerosols Radiation and Aerosols Aerosol satellite validation

9 Instruments

HSRL – CALIPSO

RSP – GLORY

21 instruments

Supporting teams in the field:

Satellites: CALIPSO, MODIS, TES, OMI, AIRS, MISR, MOPITT

Model forecasts/analyses: GEOS-5, GOCART, GEOS-Chem, STEM, MOZART, LaRC

Ground: UAF, NATIVE, ARC-IONS

spring deployment april 1 20 2008
SPRING DEPLOYMENT (April 1-20, 2008)

Eureka

ISDAC

ARCPAC

ozonesondes

(ARC-IONS)

Focus on mid-latitude pollution transport, radiative forcing of Arctic haze, radical chemistry including halogens

summer deployment june 26 july 13 2008
SUMMER DEPLOYMENT (June 26 – July 13, 2008)

Summit

POLARCAT-GRACE

POLARCAT-CNRS

Pre-HIPPO

Focus on boreal forest fires

modis fire counts during arctas
MODIS FIRE COUNTS DURING ARCTAS

July 2008

April 2008

Unusually early April start for Siberian fire season

Fires in N. Saskatchewan, California, E. Siberia in June-July

mopitt anomalies for arctas periods 2008
MOPITT Anomalies for ARCTAS periods (2008)

Difference from 9-yr monthly means; V4 column retrievals

April

June

July

L. Emmons, NCAR

co and acetonitrile spring
CO AND ACETONITRILE (SPRING)

A. Wisthaler, U. Innsbruck; G. Diskin, NASA LaRC

slide10

Stratospheric air

Biomass burning

Anthropogenicpollution

MAJOR CHEMICAL SIGNATURES IN ARCTAS DATA (SPRING)

EOF analysis of aircraft observations

stratosphere

biomass

burning

anthropogenic

Q. Liang,

NASA GSFC

co tags from mozart over alaska
CO tags from MOZART over Alaska

ARCTAS (April 1-19)

ARCPAC (April 11-23)

Comparison of CO contributions during ARCTAS and ARCPAC

Fire contribution is a bit higher during ARCPAC period than when including the first part of April

Anthropogenic sources still dominate the CO distribution

L. Emmons, NCAR

slide14

MEAN AEROSOL LATITUDE-ALTITUDE CURTAINS

sulfate

ammonium

nitrate

sea salt

dust

SPRING

170W-135W

OC

EC

60N

> 7 km

2-7 km

0-2 km

SUMMER

60N

J. Hair, NASA LaRC;

J. Dibb, UNH;

B. Anderson, NASA LaRC

sulfate in arctas spring
SULFATE IN ARCTAS (spring)

SO2 from G. Huey (GIT), sulfate from J. Dibb (UNH) compared to GEOS-Chem model

  • dominant source in the model is from Asian pollution
  • overestimate may reflect insufficient scavenging from Asian outflow (cold clouds)

J. Fisher, Harvard

slide16

MEAN C AEROSOL PROFILES (spring)

DC-8

GEOS-Chem

fires/anthro

Organic Carbon (OC)

Black Carbon (BC)

no model

scavenging

below 258 K

model scavenging

at all T

Observed OC correlates with CH3CN (r > 0.4) below 7 km but not above;

Observed BC correlates with CH3CN below 2 km and with sulfate above

Q. Wang, Harvard; B. Anderson, NASA LaRC

c aerosol distributions in the arctic april
C AEROSOL DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE ARCTIC (April)

Mean tropospheric concentrations simulated by GEOS-Chem

BC

OC

Elevated values over Alaska are not representative of the Arctic

Q. Wang, Harvard

slide18

MEAN OZONE LATITUDE-ALTITUDE CURTAINS

SPRING

170W-135W

60N

SUMMER

60N

J. Hair (NASA LaRC)

slide19

OZONE-CO RELATIONSHIPS

ARCTAS – Spring

ARCTAS – Summer

Anthropogenic airmass:

∆O3/∆CO = 0.05

Stratospheric airmass

Anthropogenic airmass:

∆O3/∆CO = 0.08

Biomass burning:

∆O3/∆CO = -0.03

Biomass burning:

∆O3/∆CO = 0.28

Little indication of ozone production in fire or anthropogenic plumes in summer, ozone production in Russian fire plumes in April (aging?)

Q. Liang, NASA GSFC

ozone source analysis from ozonesondes summer
OZONE SOURCE ANALYSIS FROM OZONESONDES (summer)

Stratospheric influence is present in summer but small

A. Luzic, PSU

methane time series april july
METHANE TIME SERIES, APRIL-JULY

ARCTAS bookends pre-HIPPO

ARCTAS (summer)

ARCTAS (spring)

Pre-HIPPO

Hudson Bay

lowlands

stratosphere

Observed

GEOS-Chem

April May June July

C. Pickett-Heaps, Harvard; G. Diskin, NASA LaRC; S. Wofsy, Harvard

methane vertical profiles in hudson bay lowlands
METHANE VERTICAL PROFILES IN HUDSON BAY LOWLANDS

May 5 Jun 23 Jul 1 Jul 4 Jul 5

Model

Obs.

pre-HIPPO

pre-HIPPO

ARCTAS

ARCTAS

ARCTAS

Onset of source in late June?

Model source of 5 Tg a-1 in Hudson Bay Lowlands (Jed Kaplan bottom-up inventory) matches observations but is much higher than previous estimates (0.5-2 Tg a-1)

C. Pickett-Heaps, Harvard; G. Diskin, NASA LaRC; S. Wofsy, Harvard

elemental mercury in arctas spring

median

model

obs

ELEMENTAL MERCURY IN ARCTAS (spring)

Vertical profile

Correlation with CO

Observations

Model

no clear

correlation

w/anything

pollution

Stratospheric mixing line

Surface mercury depletion events

C. Holmes, Harvard; R. Talbot, UNH

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