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Technical Foundations & Enabling Technologies – DS4. Andrew Faulkner. Remit:. Technical foundations and Enabling Technologies. The Demonstrator is: 2-PAD. Overall. DS4 very broad range with many institutions involved

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Technical foundations enabling technologies ds4

Technical Foundations &Enabling Technologies – DS4

Andrew Faulkner


Remit

Remit:

Technical foundations

and

Enabling Technologies

The Demonstrator is:

2-PAD

SKADS Workshop 2006


Overall

Overall

  • DS4 very broad range with many institutions involved

  • Schedule is disrupted – particularly in UK – due to funding delays (funds now awarded)

  • We will deliver by June 2009

There are 3 more years......

SKADS Workshop 2006


Ds4 work schedule

DS4 work schedule

2006Investigate and consider any possible approach.

Blue Sky etc...

2007-Q1Select 2 or 3 of the most likely approaches

2007Prototyping and developing phase.

Build models, bring together systems

2008-Q1Select 2-PAD components and finalise

2-PAD design

note: individual subsystem work will continue

2008Build 2-PAD

2009-1HTest 2-PAD and write report

Report on advances in subsystem research

SKADS Workshop 2006


Risks

Risks

Low Risk: the components exist, but can be improved....

  • Antenna array, needs performance and cost and ease improvement

  • LNA, the system noise and the cost need to be improved

  • Processing, currently far to little capacity, but will work at some limited bandwidth

    High Risk: does not exist...

  • Low power, low cost high speed ADC

  • Cheap enough analog links – must be <€5 each

  • RFI mitigation - unproven

SKADS Workshop 2006


Technical foundations enabling technologies ds4

Bits

  • Digitisation is not to do with instrument dynamic range!

  • It is to do with the RFI environment.

  • To make a practical all-digital aperture array must use minimal digitisation e.g. 4-bits

CANNOT design for a European environment!!

We need information from Site surveys

First cut suggests that 4-bits is OK...(phew!)

SKADS Workshop 2006


2 pad system

2-PAD System

  • Consider Station level AA with 2-PAD as a subsystem

    • Hence understand scaling and processing issues

      • Distances, cooling, power etc

    • Station wide construction requirements

    • Reliability analysis (system layout vital)

  • Important to have benchmark specification!

    • Building first model

  • Focus on the bottlenecks

    • Possibility/availability of components

    • Cost

SKADS Workshop 2006


Possible station side view

Possible Station - Side view

SKADS Workshop 2006


Possible station side view1

Possible Station - Side view

Element array

50m x 50m

Inflatable

Ray dome

Short range analogue links from

elements to local processing

Array physical

support grid

To scale

Entrance

Inflation pump

Station Proc.

Local P.

Desert

FOV processing

+ ¼ tile processing

10m x 5m

FOV processing

+ ¼ tile processing

10m x 5m x 2.5m

Array supports

providing ~1.6m

headroom

Tile processing

for ¼ of array

5m x 5m x 2.5m

Cooling system

Using heat transfer

ground

Optical fibre

digital links

SKADS Workshop 2006


Technical foundations enabling technologies ds4

Short range

analogue links

from elements

to local proc

(only ¼ shown)

Matrix of supports

~2m spacing (625)

Local

Proc.

Local

Proc.

Inflatable

Ray dome

Station

Layout

(looking up)

Element array

50m x 50m

Optical fibre

digital links

Entrance

Local

Proc.

Station

Processing

Wide area

fibre link to

Correlator

Tile processing

for ¼ of array

5m x 5m

Inflation

pump

FOV processing

+ ¼ tile processing

10m x 5m

SKADS Workshop 2006


Tile receiving elements

Tile Receiving elements

Vert. Pol.

Horiz. Pol.

Antenna

LNA

Filter

+

Differential

Line driver

+ve

Reg

Reg

Individual

PCB

Processing centre

Low cost screened twisted pair

20m max

SKADS Workshop 2006


Tile configuration

‘Tile’ configuration

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 13 14 15

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

12

13

14

15

element

receiver

=

  • Notes:

  • 16 elements / side

  • Groups of 16 Rx

  • in a cluster (4x4)

  • Overall size:

  • 3.0m square

  • 9.0m2

  • 512 links / tile

  • (2x16x16)

Analogue twisted pair to Processing Centre

4x4 receiver units

SKADS Workshop 2006


Overall station

Overall Station

256 Tile

processors

8 (say) FOV

processors

Assumes 4-bit samples

1GHz signals

From each element

600MHz BW

FOVs; 8 per tile

256 beams

of 600MHz BW

per FOV

16 x 16 array

of Tiles ~2300 m2

Bunkers

TP1

FOV1

TP2

}

..

TP3

.

TP17

FOV2

TP18

..

TP19

To Correlator

…..

…..

…..

…..

FOV8

..

TP254

TP255

32 off

40Gb Optical

fibres per

FOV polarisation

256 x 8

5-10Gb Optical

fibres

TP256

256 x 256 1GHz Analog links

SKADS Workshop 2006


Final thoughts

Final Thoughts....

  • Cost dominated by array and analogue links

  • Total power requirements vital

  • Power and cost of ADC an issue

  • Communications for the internal data streams

  • Continue system design:

    • Frequency dependant aperture

    • Calibration approaches

    • Independent many small beams over whole scan angle

    • Flexibility on beams/bandwidth/sampling for Tx to correlator

On SKA timescales: a digital AA appears:

possible, practical and cost effective

SKADS Workshop 2006


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