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Environmental Legislation & Regulations. Professor Natalie Carroll ASM 336 September 18, 2005. Who governs environmental laws and policies?. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) : The governing body for major statues or laws

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Environmental Legislation & Regulations

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Environmental Legislation & Regulations

Professor Natalie Carroll

ASM 336

September 18, 2005

Who governs environmental laws and policies?

  • US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): The governing body for major statues or laws

  • National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-1969: establishes policies, set goals and facilitate the implementation of such policies

  • NEPA requires federal agencies to assess environmental impact of implementing their major program (Work with NASA & Army)

Positive Aspects of Regulations

  • Protection of the Environment

Concerns about Regulations

  • Structured so costs excessive compared to benefits.

  • Command-and-control

  • US Free Market Choice

  • Uneven application of regulations

  • Lack properly structured incentives

  • Generate inefficiencies

  • Paper work, costs

  • Duplicative (Federal, State, etc)

Environmental Regulations

  • Clean Air Act (CAA)-1970

  • Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)-1974

  • Clean Water Act (CWA)-1977

  • Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA) -1976

  • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)-1980

  • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide & Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) -1972

  • Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) -1996

Clean Air Act (CAA) - 1970

  • Diesel Engines

  • Odor

Safe Drinking Water Act

  • Protect nation’s sources of drinking water

  • Protect public health through treatment techniques

  • MCL’s: Maximum Contaminant Level

  • Protect underground sources of drinking water

  • Well Head protection areas

Phase II Stormwater Regulations

Clean Water Act (1972)

  • Water Pollution Control

  • Restore & maintain chemical, physical and biological integrity of the nation’s waters

  • Community sewers

  • NPS pollution control (TMDL’s!!!)

  • National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA)

  • Hazardous Waste

  • Underground tanks

  • Control Solid Waste

  • Regulation of facilities which burn waste

Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)

  • Also known as the Superfund

  • Establish a Hazardous Substance

  • Superfund

  • Establish regulations controlling hazardous waste sites

  • Provide liability for hazardous waste release from inactive sites

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)-1986

  • Revise and extends CERCLA

  • Emergency planning & preparedness, community right-to-know reporting and toxic chemical release reporting

  • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)

  • Regulates the use and safety of pesticides products and features

  • Classification and certification of pesticide by specific use

  • Evaluation of risk posed by pesticides (Required for registration)

  • Restriction of use of pesticides harmful to the environment

  • Enforcement of requirements through inspections, labeling, notices and state regulations

  • Groundwater management plan

Additional Regulations

  • Wild and Scenic Rivers Act

    -establishes wild and scenic river system

  • Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA)

    - balanced preservation & development in coastal areas

  • Endangered Species Act

    - conserve endangered and threatened species

Additional Regulations

  • Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act

    - regulates dumping of all types of materials into ocean

  • Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA)

    - sets up toxic substances program

    - EPA can require manufacturers to collect data on effects of their substance

  • National Historic Prevention Act

    -preserve, restore and maintain cultural resources

Additional Regulations

  • Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) -1970

  • Oil Pollution Act (OPA)-1990

  • Endangered Species Act (ESA)-1973

The following slides were taken from a presentation given by Dr. Thomas L. Theis, Director of the Institute for Environmental Science and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago. September 13, 2005, Purdue University

Seminar title: Environmental Manufacturing Management: A New Approach to Sustainability


  • We Have Been Altering the Environment for a Long Time – but are Just Beginning to Take Responsibility

  • Environmental Issues are Not Just More Global, but More Complex

  • Firms are Increasingly Being Held Responsible for Environmental and Social Externalities With Which They are Associated

Sustainability Requires a Different Way of Thinking About How We Interact Within the Environment That:

  • Stresses integration of our needs with those of our progeny

  • Views the natural world as a constrained system

  • Sees humanity as part of a symbiotic relationship with the world

  • Recognizes the value of ecosystem services

  • Understands the need to make decisions within a holistic framework



Traditional (Compliance) Perspective

Final product and residuals measured at the factory, in terms of materials production.

Residuals: Waste & pollution

Raw materials

Finished material

Raw materials

Systems (Optimization) Perspective

Final product is measured in terms of service, rather than material,

at end of chain rather than in middle.

Film & paper production

Exposure (Capture)


Film developing & printing

Final Product


  • Accelerated Costs of Environmental Compliance

  • Legislation Focused on Product and Socially Responsible Stewardship

  • New, More Efficient Processing Technologies

  • Application of Life Cycle Analysis and Total Cost Accounting

  • Ability to Measure More Accurately the Impacts of Waste Emissions

USEPA Policy Statement

“…to move the Nation from a waste-oriented to a life cycle management way of thinking about materials”. (USEPA Strategic Plan, 2003-2008, p. 60)


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