The Legal framework of Political parties in the Republic of Moldova: critical reflections and policy...
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The Legal framework of Political parties in the Republic of Moldova: critical reflections and policy recommendations. Correlative approach ? What do we have. Legislation/Regulations Standards,practicies. what do we have ? Legislation/Regulations.

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Correlative approach what do we have

The Legal framework of Political parties in the Republic of Moldova: critical reflections and policy recommendations


Correlative approach what do we have

Correlative approach?What do we have

Legislation/Regulations Standards,practicies


What do we have legislation regulations

what do we have ?Legislation/Regulations

- Legal framework (international, european, national) that ensures to women and men the right and the chances to participate in politics

- Party programes and statutes (political agenda, gender stuructures, quota)


International documents that stipulate the necessity of gender equality promotion

Internationaldocumentsthatstipulatethenecessityofgenderequalitypromotion

  • TheConventionontheEliminationofallformsofDiscriminationagainstWomen, 1979 (CEDAW) (ratifiedby Moldova in1994)

  • Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, 1995

  • UnitedNationsMilleniumDeclarations(Rezolution 55/2 a ofthe General Assemblyofthe UN adoptedonSeptember 8, 2000)

  • Recommendation (2003)3 of the Committee of Ministers of the member states (Council of Europe) on balanced participation of women and men in the decision-making process in political and public life

  • Recommendation (2007) of the Committee of Ministers of the member states (Council of Europe)


National legal framework

National legal framework

  • Constitution of the Republic of Moldova (1994),chapter II,Fundamental Rights, Article 16 (2), Article 43-50

  • Electoral Code Article 11 Right to elect; Article 12 Right to be elected

  • Law on ensuring equality of chances between women and men No. 5-XVI adopted on 09.02.2006

  • National Program on ensuring the gender equality for 2010-2015 (29.XII,2009), Sphere of Participation in public and political decision-making process


Law on ensuring equality of chances between women and men

Law on ensuring equality of chances between women and men

AArticle 7 Equality of chances in the electoral field, in the activity of political parties and other social-political organisations

(1) Central Electoral Commission, councils and district electoral offices ensure the respect of the principle of equality between women and men in the elecotral field.

(2) The political parties and other social-political organisations are obliged to contribuite to ensuring equal rights and opportunities among thier members, women and men by:

a) Ensuring representation in the parties’ governing bodies of women and men;

b) Ensuring representation on the candidates lists of women and men without discrimination


Ce avem pe coordonata standards practicies

ce avem pe coordonataStandards, practicies

- standards: lending, intentions, declarative, partially implemented

Declarative democracy (showcase democracy)

  • Training of Women Org. – structure of positive discrimination, to compensate the insvisiblity of women in the politica parties, constituted according to men vision, in order to mobilize the women public sentiment


Positive practices but inconsequent

Positive practices,but inconsequent

  • Appointment of women in the decision-making bodies of the territorial party structures

  • Empowerment of women on the level of Local Public Authorities – more evident trend than at the level of Central Public Authorities

    Mentaining the „Glass bell of politics” in terms of gender representation

  • Proportional representation – electoral strategy of PPCD (christian-democrats), 2005; or at least 30% - trend


Women representation in the decision bodies on local level evolution involution evolution

Women representation in the decision bodies on local level(evolution – involution – evolution)

  • 1980 49,8%

  • 1985 50,4%

  • 1990 35% counselors 13% mayors

  • 1996 39,2% counselors 10,3% mayors

  • 1999 9,7% counselors 8,74% mayors

  • 2003 10% counselors 15,4% mayors

    3,1% Chiars of raion (district) executive committees

  • 2007 17 %counselors 17,9% mayors

    3,1% Chiars of raion (district) executive committees

    Loretta Handrabura

    dr. conf. univ.


Correlative approach what do we have

Where it is easier for a woman to assert itself, in local or national politics? And why? (opened question)

in social politics

Everywhere is difficult

It depends on the

abilities and may

compete with men

at any level

Where is accepted

by the rulers

Both

At the local level it is easier:

results, words and deeds

are closer


Representation of women in the state bodies

Representation of women in the state bodies

Government

1980 10%3 out of 30

19907%1 out of 13

19940%0 out of 20

19960%0 out of 17

1999 6% 1 out of 15

2001 11% 2 out of 18

2005 13% 2 out of 15

2008 37% 6 out of 16

2009 5% 1 out of 16

Parliament

During URSS

33%- formal quota

1990 3,8% 12 out of 380

19944,9%5 out of 101

19988,9%9 out of 101

2001 15,9% 16 out of 101

2005 21,7% 23 out of 101

2009 23,1% 25 out of 101


Gender representation on the lists of candidates running for members of parliament in moldova

Gender representation on the lists of candidates running for members of parliament in moldova

women

men


Correlative approach what do we have

Gender representation on the lists of candidates running for members of parliament, 2009 electoral campaign

average

Greens

United Moldova Party

Conservative party

Nation and Country Party

Republican Party

Christian Democrats

Independents

Humanist Party

Communist party

European Action

Democratic party

Our Moldova Alliance

Liberal Party

Social Democrats

Liberal Democrats

Union of Centrists

Women

Men


Correlative approach what do we have

Gender topics ocassinally appear in the electoral platforms of political parties

Early elections 2009 – it is not a priority, because the equal opportunities between men and women and the gender partnerships, emphasized in the regulations of the Women Oragnisations within the parties are still invisible and secondary for party and accordingly for state policies


Recovery measures

Recovery measures

Identified priority problems:

  • a) subrepresentation of women in decision-making positions in the public and political life

  • b) existence of structural barriers such as cultural, economic and social in the promotion of women in decision-making positions in the public and political life


Proposals regulations

Proposalsregulations

  • Explicit provisions:

  • Law on Political Parties (2007)

    ! Law on Political Parties (1999)

    Article. 9 (6): Political parties and other social-political organisations will promote the principle of equality between women and men in decision-making bodies at all levels

    What is stipulated now?

    Article 18. Obligations and responsibility of political parties

    (1)Political parties are obliged to respect the legislation of Republic of Moldova and the provisions of their statute.

    (2) If the law changes, as well as in the case of finding mismatches of the statutes and programs contrary to legal provisions, the parties will adjust their documents in compliance with legal norms, modifying and amending them according to the established procedure.

  • Affirmative action – stuimulating funding

    II. Electoral Code

    a. Electoral system based on proportionality (quota as an affirmative action)

    b. If the statute of the political party provides representation quota, then the quota should be respected on electoral lsits


Proposals regulations1

Proposalsregulations

  • Coherent state policy, implementation of Law on ensuring equal opportunities ...

  • Poitical actions that would encourage women to participate in leading positions;

  • Clear mechanisms that are functional and sustainable for implementation;

  • Gender-sensitive budget


Proposals approach that would ensure gender balance a better representation of women in politics

Proposals: Approach that would ensure gender balance (a better representation of women in politics)

  • Pillar I – ability to enter in politics

  • Decision to enter in politics (gender partnership education, perosnal ambitions and explotation of opportunities provided by legislation)

  • Consolidation of the political/apolitical women (increasing of leadership resources among the citizens and porposal of opinion leaders to the public)

  • Pillar II – opportunity to be elected

  • Ensuring transperency of the process of nominating candidates

  • The role of media that could bring on the public agenda the validity of internal decision of political parties and the opportunity of the criteria used by the internal fora for nominating candidates for various important positions : a) the plus of the proportional system for women visibility; b)know how the candidates will be selected

  • Pillar III – chance to be voted

    - It is directly dependent on the voting system and of the dominant political culture


Women s participation gains in political act

Women’s participation gains in political act

  • Promotion of a tolerat spirit at the level of attitudes and behaviour (9,5%);

  • More active promotion of the democratic principels such as justice, equality, collaboration and cooperation, acceptance of (6,5%);

  • Explicit intentions and actions, honesty and morality (4,0%);

  • Persistance in actions and personal honor (3,0%);

  • Increasing the number of participants in political life (3,0%);

  • Ability to accept other visions without discrimination (3,0%).

    Loretta Handrabura

    dr. conf. univ.


Correlative approach what do we have

«There are no specific women problems, all the problems are related to women as well, that is why they must have access to discuss all issues and questions.»


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