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Chapter 33 Decolonization, 1945-1975. The United Nations. Two main bodies: General Assembly (reps from all member states), Security Council (five permanent members: US, China, France, UK, USSR; seven rotating members) Day to Day business led by Secretary General, oversees UNICEF, FAO, UNESCO

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Chapter 33 Decolonization, 1945-1975

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Chapter 33

Decolonization, 1945-1975


The United Nations

  • Two main bodies: General Assembly (reps from all member states), Security Council (five permanent members: US, China, France, UK, USSR; seven rotating members)

  • Day to Day business led by Secretary General, oversees UNICEF, FAO, UNESCO

  • Majority vote, veto power with 5 members

  • Renounces war, territorial conquest; peacekeeping role

  • General Assembly swelled with decolonization, used to have more weight


Capitalism and Communism

  • 1944: Bretton Woods Conference: 40 countries met, devised new international monetary system; fix exchange rates, create International Monetary Fund, World Bank

  • Monetary system stabilized by US gold, dollar; Soviets and Eastern Europe had closed monetary system: govt. set prices, no market

  • Thus, capitalist and communist economies competed; US unparalleled growth 1950-70

  • Marshall Plan helped Europe; by 1963 doubled 1940 output; 1957 Europe created Common Market; 1993: EU


Capitalism, Communism

  • Capitalism: led to growth, higher living standards, demand for consumer goods; a mass consumer society

  • Communism: led to dramatic expansion in industrial production; Soviets took advantage of natural resources, population, abundant energy, govt. investments in science/education.

  • By 1970’s communist economies fell behind, unable to adapt quickly to demand for consumer goods; industry unable to meet demand


West v. East in Europe, Korea

  • 1940’s: emergence of communist regimes in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Albania

  • 1947: US gave $$ to Greece, Turkey

  • 1947-1948: USSR blockaded Berlin

  • 1961: USSR built Berlin Wall to stop population drain from East to West

  • West tested the East by encouraging divisions in Warsaw Pact (i.e. Hungary, 1956)

  • 1950: N. Korea invaded South, launching Korean War until 1953; remained at 38th parallel


United States Defeat in Vietnam

  • 1954: Ho Chi Minh defeated French forces in Dienbienphu, carved out communist N. Vietnam; noncommunist govt. ruled South

  • Eisenhower decided not to aid France; Ho Chi Minh sent Viet Cong (guerrillas) to south

  • 1961-3: Pres. John F. Kennedy sent military advisers, encouraged coup of Pres. Diem

  • 1964: Lyndon Baines Johnson used Gulf of Tonkin incident for war; 500,000 troops

  • 1973: Nixon led treaty in Paris; 1975: N. Vietnamese take over whole country; 1 million Vietnamese dead, 58,000 Americans


The Vietnamese People at War


Cold War Confrontation


The Race for Nuclear Supremacy

  • 1949: USSR explodes first nuclear bomb

  • 1952: USA first hydrogen bomb; 1953 USSR

  • 1962: USSR joins with Castro, nuclear missiles in Cuba; Cuban Missile Crisis—JFK blockaded, Khrushchev backed down etc.

  • 1963: moratorium on nuclear testing

  • 1968: Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty

  • Helsinki Accords: human rights agreement

  • Space Race: 1957: Sputnik! US 3 mo later

  • 1969: Armstrong, Aldrin USA on the moon!


Decolonization and Nation Building

  • New Nations in South and Southeast Asia

  • The Struggle for Independence in Africa

  • The Quest for Economic Freedom in Latin America

  • Challenges of Nation Building


New Nations: South, SE Asia

  • Pakistan: under control of Muslim military leaders; India: secular republic led by Nehru

  • 1947: War over Kashmir; again in 1965, 1999 and 2000; 1971: Bengali speaking east split from Pakistan, formed Bangladesh

  • 1946: USA recognizes Philippine freedom

  • 1949: Achmad Sukarno took over Indonesia from Dutch control, ruled until 1965 coup

  • 1948: Burma (Myanmar) free from Britain; Malay Federation began

  • 1965: Singapore became free city-state


Struggle for Africa Independence

  • 1952: Tunisia free from France; 1956: Morocco free; France still wanted Algeria

  • 1954: Vietnamese victory over France triggered Algerian revolution; free in 1962

  • Sub-Saharan freedom gained through negotiation, not revolution; African leaders trained in western schools, ideas

  • 1957: Kwame Nkrumah freed Ghana, fell to coup in 1966; 1960: Nigeria free from UK; 1961: Kenya free

  • 1958: Guinea free from France; other colonies by 1960 (West Africa, Equatorial)


African Independence II

  • 1965: Mobuto Sese Seko seized control of Congo from Belgium; violent, corrupt, driven from power in 1997

  • 1961: Angola and Mozambique freed from Portuguese control by guerrilla nationalists

  • 1980: Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) free from UK

  • 1961: South Africa independence, yet apartheid (separation of races); 1964 Nelson Mandela led ANC (African National Congress) resistance; imprisoned; 1990 Mandela freed, S. Africa majority rule


Decolonization, 1947-1990


Jomo Kenyatta


Econ. Freedom, Latin America

  • Latin America independent in 1800’s

  • Europe and US dominated economy of Latin America; Chile’s copper, Columbian coffee, Cuban sugar, Guatemala’s bananas

  • Mexican Revolution led to nationalizing oil (1938), industrialization, yet still huge gulf between rich and poor (corrupt govt., huge population growth); 2000 elite families control

  • Guatemala: United Fruit Company (US) controlled land, economy; Jacobo Arbenz Guzman (pres 1951) modeled after Vargas (Brazil) and Peron (Argentina)


Economic Freedom L. America II

  • Guzman wanted 1) land reform 2) less US political influence. CIA sponsored takeover, removed Guzman, led to decades of instability

  • Cuba: dominated by US—sugar, banking, transportation, tourism, public utilities: US most important market, too; 1956 Sugar = 80% of exports! Profits to US, wealthy Cubans

  • 1953: Batista seized power in Cuba; 1959: Fidel Castro led revolution w/Che Guevara; knew conflict with US inevitable; nationalized property of US corporations; US embargoed, tried Bay of Pigs, CIA assassinations


Cuban Poster of Ernesto Che

Guevara


Beyond a Bipolar World

  • The Third World

  • Japan and China

  • The Middle East

  • The Emergence of Environmental Concerns


The Third World

  • Nonaligned nations were Third World (not associated with two worlds of US, USSR)

  • Nonaligned leaders wanted to extract money, support from one or both superpowers, play Cold War rivals against each other (Egypt)


Japan and China

  • Japan and China benefited most by USA, USSR preoccupation

  • Japan focused resources on rebuilding industry, expanding trade; kept military budget low; growth in electricity, steel, ships

  • 1949: Mao took over China; 1956: Mao and USSR split because of rival communism; 1958: “Great Leap Forward” designed to propel China into world power; failed, led to 20-30 million deaths; 1966: Cultural Revolution; 1971 Nixon “normalized” relations w/China, recognized One China


Cultural Revolution in China


The Middle East

  • UK set Syria, Lebanon free after WWII; 1952: Egypt free, 1958: Iraq, 1956: Jordan

  • Struggle with Israel defined Arab politics; 1947: UN recognized Israel, Palestine = two states, Jewish and Arab

  • 1948: Israel declared independence, Arab countries sent armies to help Palestinians; Israel won; 1967: Israel won war against Egypt, Syria and Jordan: took Gaza Strip, Golan Hts, Sinai Peninsula; caused PLO etc

  • 1960: OPEC formed (Org of Petroleum Exporting Countries)


Middle East II

  • 1973: Yom Kippur War—surprise attacks by Syria, Egypt v. Israel; w/support from US, Israel won

  • OPEC embargoed oil shipments to US and lowered production; worldwide recession

  • 1974: OPEC stopped embargo, quadrupled price; massive transfer of wealth to Arab nations


Shortage at the Pumps in the 70’s: $1 a gallon!


Environmental Emergence

  • Massive investments in economy: hydroelectric dams, nuclear power stations, environmental impact of pesticide, herbicide, automobile exhaust, industrial waste, radiation

  • 1970: Clean Air Act; US began EPA; first Earth Day

  • Recognition of finite natural nonrenewable resources: more efficient heating systems, lowered highway speeds (55 mph), cut back on consumption!


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