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Chapter 33 Decolonization, 1945-1975. The United Nations. Two main bodies: General Assembly (reps from all member states), Security Council (five permanent members: US, China, France, UK, USSR; seven rotating members) Day to Day business led by Secretary General, oversees UNICEF, FAO, UNESCO

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Chapter 33 Decolonization, 1945-1975

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Chapter 33 decolonization 1945 1975

Chapter 33

Decolonization, 1945-1975


The united nations

The United Nations

  • Two main bodies: General Assembly (reps from all member states), Security Council (five permanent members: US, China, France, UK, USSR; seven rotating members)

  • Day to Day business led by Secretary General, oversees UNICEF, FAO, UNESCO

  • Majority vote, veto power with 5 members

  • Renounces war, territorial conquest; peacekeeping role

  • General Assembly swelled with decolonization, used to have more weight


Capitalism and communism

Capitalism and Communism

  • 1944: Bretton Woods Conference: 40 countries met, devised new international monetary system; fix exchange rates, create International Monetary Fund, World Bank

  • Monetary system stabilized by US gold, dollar; Soviets and Eastern Europe had closed monetary system: govt. set prices, no market

  • Thus, capitalist and communist economies competed; US unparalleled growth 1950-70

  • Marshall Plan helped Europe; by 1963 doubled 1940 output; 1957 Europe created Common Market; 1993: EU


Capitalism communism

Capitalism, Communism

  • Capitalism: led to growth, higher living standards, demand for consumer goods; a mass consumer society

  • Communism: led to dramatic expansion in industrial production; Soviets took advantage of natural resources, population, abundant energy, govt. investments in science/education.

  • By 1970’s communist economies fell behind, unable to adapt quickly to demand for consumer goods; industry unable to meet demand


West v east in europe korea

West v. East in Europe, Korea

  • 1940’s: emergence of communist regimes in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Albania

  • 1947: US gave $$ to Greece, Turkey

  • 1947-1948: USSR blockaded Berlin

  • 1961: USSR built Berlin Wall to stop population drain from East to West

  • West tested the East by encouraging divisions in Warsaw Pact (i.e. Hungary, 1956)

  • 1950: N. Korea invaded South, launching Korean War until 1953; remained at 38th parallel


United states defeat in vietnam

United States Defeat in Vietnam

  • 1954: Ho Chi Minh defeated French forces in Dienbienphu, carved out communist N. Vietnam; noncommunist govt. ruled South

  • Eisenhower decided not to aid France; Ho Chi Minh sent Viet Cong (guerrillas) to south

  • 1961-3: Pres. John F. Kennedy sent military advisers, encouraged coup of Pres. Diem

  • 1964: Lyndon Baines Johnson used Gulf of Tonkin incident for war; 500,000 troops

  • 1973: Nixon led treaty in Paris; 1975: N. Vietnamese take over whole country; 1 million Vietnamese dead, 58,000 Americans


Chapter 33 decolonization 1945 1975

The Vietnamese People at War


Chapter 33 decolonization 1945 1975

Cold War Confrontation


The race for nuclear supremacy

The Race for Nuclear Supremacy

  • 1949: USSR explodes first nuclear bomb

  • 1952: USA first hydrogen bomb; 1953 USSR

  • 1962: USSR joins with Castro, nuclear missiles in Cuba; Cuban Missile Crisis—JFK blockaded, Khrushchev backed down etc.

  • 1963: moratorium on nuclear testing

  • 1968: Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty

  • Helsinki Accords: human rights agreement

  • Space Race: 1957: Sputnik! US 3 mo later

  • 1969: Armstrong, Aldrin USA on the moon!


Decolonization and nation building

Decolonization and Nation Building

  • New Nations in South and Southeast Asia

  • The Struggle for Independence in Africa

  • The Quest for Economic Freedom in Latin America

  • Challenges of Nation Building


New nations south se asia

New Nations: South, SE Asia

  • Pakistan: under control of Muslim military leaders; India: secular republic led by Nehru

  • 1947: War over Kashmir; again in 1965, 1999 and 2000; 1971: Bengali speaking east split from Pakistan, formed Bangladesh

  • 1946: USA recognizes Philippine freedom

  • 1949: Achmad Sukarno took over Indonesia from Dutch control, ruled until 1965 coup

  • 1948: Burma (Myanmar) free from Britain; Malay Federation began

  • 1965: Singapore became free city-state


Struggle for africa independence

Struggle for Africa Independence

  • 1952: Tunisia free from France; 1956: Morocco free; France still wanted Algeria

  • 1954: Vietnamese victory over France triggered Algerian revolution; free in 1962

  • Sub-Saharan freedom gained through negotiation, not revolution; African leaders trained in western schools, ideas

  • 1957: Kwame Nkrumah freed Ghana, fell to coup in 1966; 1960: Nigeria free from UK; 1961: Kenya free

  • 1958: Guinea free from France; other colonies by 1960 (West Africa, Equatorial)


African independence ii

African Independence II

  • 1965: Mobuto Sese Seko seized control of Congo from Belgium; violent, corrupt, driven from power in 1997

  • 1961: Angola and Mozambique freed from Portuguese control by guerrilla nationalists

  • 1980: Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) free from UK

  • 1961: South Africa independence, yet apartheid (separation of races); 1964 Nelson Mandela led ANC (African National Congress) resistance; imprisoned; 1990 Mandela freed, S. Africa majority rule


Chapter 33 decolonization 1945 1975

Decolonization, 1947-1990


Chapter 33 decolonization 1945 1975

Jomo Kenyatta


Econ freedom latin america

Econ. Freedom, Latin America

  • Latin America independent in 1800’s

  • Europe and US dominated economy of Latin America; Chile’s copper, Columbian coffee, Cuban sugar, Guatemala’s bananas

  • Mexican Revolution led to nationalizing oil (1938), industrialization, yet still huge gulf between rich and poor (corrupt govt., huge population growth); 2000 elite families control

  • Guatemala: United Fruit Company (US) controlled land, economy; Jacobo Arbenz Guzman (pres 1951) modeled after Vargas (Brazil) and Peron (Argentina)


Economic freedom l america ii

Economic Freedom L. America II

  • Guzman wanted 1) land reform 2) less US political influence. CIA sponsored takeover, removed Guzman, led to decades of instability

  • Cuba: dominated by US—sugar, banking, transportation, tourism, public utilities: US most important market, too; 1956 Sugar = 80% of exports! Profits to US, wealthy Cubans

  • 1953: Batista seized power in Cuba; 1959: Fidel Castro led revolution w/Che Guevara; knew conflict with US inevitable; nationalized property of US corporations; US embargoed, tried Bay of Pigs, CIA assassinations


Chapter 33 decolonization 1945 1975

Cuban Poster of Ernesto Che

Guevara


Beyond a bipolar world

Beyond a Bipolar World

  • The Third World

  • Japan and China

  • The Middle East

  • The Emergence of Environmental Concerns


The third world

The Third World

  • Nonaligned nations were Third World (not associated with two worlds of US, USSR)

  • Nonaligned leaders wanted to extract money, support from one or both superpowers, play Cold War rivals against each other (Egypt)


Japan and china

Japan and China

  • Japan and China benefited most by USA, USSR preoccupation

  • Japan focused resources on rebuilding industry, expanding trade; kept military budget low; growth in electricity, steel, ships

  • 1949: Mao took over China; 1956: Mao and USSR split because of rival communism; 1958: “Great Leap Forward” designed to propel China into world power; failed, led to 20-30 million deaths; 1966: Cultural Revolution; 1971 Nixon “normalized” relations w/China, recognized One China


Chapter 33 decolonization 1945 1975

Cultural Revolution in China


The middle east

The Middle East

  • UK set Syria, Lebanon free after WWII; 1952: Egypt free, 1958: Iraq, 1956: Jordan

  • Struggle with Israel defined Arab politics; 1947: UN recognized Israel, Palestine = two states, Jewish and Arab

  • 1948: Israel declared independence, Arab countries sent armies to help Palestinians; Israel won; 1967: Israel won war against Egypt, Syria and Jordan: took Gaza Strip, Golan Hts, Sinai Peninsula; caused PLO etc

  • 1960: OPEC formed (Org of Petroleum Exporting Countries)


Middle east ii

Middle East II

  • 1973: Yom Kippur War—surprise attacks by Syria, Egypt v. Israel; w/support from US, Israel won

  • OPEC embargoed oil shipments to US and lowered production; worldwide recession

  • 1974: OPEC stopped embargo, quadrupled price; massive transfer of wealth to Arab nations


Chapter 33 decolonization 1945 1975

Shortage at the Pumps in the 70’s: $1 a gallon!


Environmental emergence

Environmental Emergence

  • Massive investments in economy: hydroelectric dams, nuclear power stations, environmental impact of pesticide, herbicide, automobile exhaust, industrial waste, radiation

  • 1970: Clean Air Act; US began EPA; first Earth Day

  • Recognition of finite natural nonrenewable resources: more efficient heating systems, lowered highway speeds (55 mph), cut back on consumption!


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