World war ii
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World War II. Liberalism in the Interwar Period. Treaty of Versailles (1919) Disillusionment with BOP politics National self-determination: Yugoslavia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, the Baltic countries Liberal Idealism: Woodrow Wilson: “The Fourteen Points”. The League of Nations (1920).

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World War II

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World war ii

World War II


Liberalism in the interwar period

Liberalism in the Interwar Period

  • Treaty of Versailles (1919)

  • Disillusionment with BOP politics

  • National self-determination:

    • Yugoslavia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, the Baltic countries

  • Liberal Idealism:

    • Woodrow Wilson: “The Fourteen Points”


The league of nations 1920

The League of Nations (1920)

  • Collective security principle

    • Aggression against one is aggression against all (art. 16)

    • Outlaw aggression

    • Pledge to assist victims of aggression

    • Act collectively against aggressor

  • Decisions by unanimity

  • US did not join the League

  • Treaty of Locarno (1925): allows Germany into the League


The failure of collective security

The Failure of Collective Security

  • Japanese invasion of Manchuria (1931)

  • Italian invasion of Ethiopia (1935)

  • German annexation of Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) 1938

    • Munich Agreement between Hitler and Chamberlein


Hitler s rise to power

Hitler’s Rise to Power

  • National Socialist Party (Nazis) win and becomes chancellor: 1933

    • National humiliation

    • Economy devastated

    • Hyper inflation

  • Totalitarian state system

  • Fascist and nationalist ideology

  • Expansionist foreign policy


Appeasing hitler

Appeasing Hitler

  • March into Rhineland (1936)

  • Annexation of Austria (1938)

  • The Munich Agreement over Czechoslovakia (1938)

  • Treaty between Germany and USSR


Blitzkrieg and over reach

Blitzkrieg and Over-reach

  • Germany invades Norway, Holland, Belgium, France, pushes back the British

  • Germany invades USSR (1942)

  • Japan and the US get involved (1941)

  • Germany defeated: 1945


The nuremberg trials 1945 1949

The Nuremberg Trials (1945-1949)


World war ii

Causes of WWII?


Structural causes

Structural Causes

  • Post WWI peace unstable: Treaty of Versailles

  • Failure of institutions and collective security

  • Failure to balance German power


Domestic politics

Domestic Politics

  • Rise of fascism in Germany, Spain, Italy

  • Isolationism in the US

  • Imperialism in Japan

  • The Great Depression and economic collapse

  • Internal divisions in liberal democracies


The role of individuals

The Role of Individuals

  • Hitler’s war?

  • Poor judgment on the part of Neville Chamberlain?

  • Miscalculation of by Japanese leadership?

  • Wrong lessons learned from WWI?


World war ii

Was World War II inevitable?

What factors contributed most to this event?


Lessons of wwii

Lessons of WWII

  • Appeasement leads to larger conflicts

  • Nationalism taken to extreme dangerous

  • Disillusionment with collective security and international institutions

  • The Holocaust: “Never Again!”


War and its causes

War and Its Causes

Frequency of war: 5500 years of recorded history: 14,500 wars.

278 from 1480 to 1940.

224 from 1816 to 1980

Several causes of war (Farnsworth, 1992):

  • Human nature

  • Balance of power theory: imbalances cause war, equilibrium causes peace

  • Arms races and security dilemma

  • Number of states in system - both directions: some argue more equal powers equals less war; others like Waltz that fewer is better

  • Demands of domestic system - capitalist economies battle over rights to resources; competing economic/political systems; colonial wars;

  • Nationalism

  • Bad leadership and policy choices


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