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After the War The Birth of a Nation The Nation’s First Governments. Articles of Confederation Chapter 8. Revolutionary War & Declaration of Independence. Revolutionary War & Declaration of Independence- Destroyed British government in the American colonies

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after the war the birth of a nation the nation s first governments

After the War The Birth of a NationThe Nation’s First Governments

Articles of Confederation

Chapter 8

revolutionary war declaration of independence
Revolutionary War & Declaration of Independence
  • Revolutionary War & Declaration of Independence- Destroyed British government in the American colonies
  • Social Contract was broken – needed to be replaced
  • What to replace it with?
  • America needed a new plan of government
  • British government
  • Destroyed government
  • Needed to rebuilt a new government
what to replace it with
What to replace it with?
  • The Declaration of Independence did not declare America to be a single country.
  • The 13 colonies became 13 separate “countries” each with its own set of laws and government.
  • They called themselves “states.”
confederation
Confederation
  • There were some things that a state could not do on its own
    • It could not raise and maintain an army
confederation1
Confederation
  • For this and other reason, the Second Continental Congress made plans for a “firm league of friendship” among states
  • They were called the Articles of Confederation
confederation2
Confederation
  • A confederation is a group of individuals (in this case governments) who band together for a common purpose.
  • The Articles of Confederation established a system by which states could work with each other
what to replace it with1
What to replace it with?
  • At the time, the idea of separate, independent states appealed to most Americans.
  • They were uninterested in creating a large central government of their own.
state vs national government
State Vs. National government

State government

Central or national government

articles of confederation
Articles of Confederation
  • 1781-1789
  • America’s First Constitution
  • Strong State or local government
  • Weak central or national government
    • Opposite of what they had with England
    • Mistrust of central government
    • No power to tax
    • 1 branch of governemt
state v national government1
State V. National government

State government

National/ Central government

1 branch of government

legislative( representatives- create the laws)

  • 3 branches of government
    • Legislative ( representatives- create the laws)
    • Executive( president- enforce the laws)
    • Judicial( courts – judge or interpret the laws)
think pair share
Think – Pair- Share
  • Think & Answer in your notebook:

Why were the Americans afraid to set up a strong national or central government?

statehood
Statehood
  • State Constitutions- Each new American state immediately confirmed its independence by writing its own constitution.
  • These documents were different from Britain’s because they were detailed and written down.
statehood1
Statehood
  • Each state had set up a government similar to the colonial government that had come before it.
  • Republic = representatives
  • Popular sovereignty –common people rule
  • Separation of Powers ( 3 branches of government)
  • Each had:
    • Governor-elected by citizens or chosen by legislature
    • System of Courts- interpret laws
    • Legislature- passes laws
statehood2
Statehood
  • Many state constitutions also included a Bill of Rights which guaranteed certain basic rights.
    • Freedom of speech
    • Press
    • Religion
    • education
state constitutions basic ideas of government
State ConstitutionsBasic Ideas of Government

Natural Rights

Check & Balances

Social Contract

Government

Separation of Powers

Popular Sovereignty

J

L

E

Bill of Rights

Representation

What freedoms should people have?

Speech, press, religion, education, voting, slavery

national government under the articles of confederation
National government under The Articles of Confederation
  • 1. Congress was one house, unicameral and each state got one vote
  • 2. Congress was given few powers
  • 3. Congress had no power to tax or enforce laws
accepted ratification
Accepted! Ratification!
  • By 1781, all 13 states had ratified, or voted in favor of the Articles of Confederation
  • We had a new official government.

Ratification= official approval

articles of confederation best thing
Articles of ConfederationBest thing 
  • Best thing Congress did under the Articles of Confederation was the Northwest Ordinances
    • Creation of Northwest Territory
    • Decided how to governed those western land
      • Basic rights
      • No slavery
      • education
achievements of the articles of confederation
Achievements of the Articles of Confederation 
  • Statesclaiming for themselves western land
  • Problem – not all states equal access to the land
  • Solution – National government ( for all) takes control of western land
  • Question – What to do with the western land?
slide21

What to do with the western land?

    • New laws or ordinances ( ordinances = laws)
      • on what to do with
      • how to divide it
      • how to govern these lands

How to divide it

Divided western land

  • Creating Northwest Territory & possibility of new states
    • Ohio
    • Indiana
    • Michigan
    • Illinois
    • Wisconsin
    • Minnesota

What to do with it ?

Sell it to help pay war debts some land for schools – promoted public education

northwest ordinances
Northwest Ordinances
  • Described how to governed western territory
  • Created the process in which territories would become equal states
  • Included a bill of rights
    • Freedom of religion, speech, habeas corpus, trial by jury
    • Free education
    • Prohibited slavery in Northwest Territory ( no slavery allowed)
    • “ good faith” with Indians
weaknesses of the articles
Weaknesses of the Articles
  • The Articles had serious problems:
    • Congress could not levy/ collect taxes
    • Congress could not pass laws unless nine states voted in favor of it
      • Amend= to change (in this case there needed to be a unanimous vote)
    • Congress could not enforce laws, so if a state ignored a law, nothing could be done
weaknesses
Weaknesses
  • Congress could not collect or levy taxes
  • **The government had to borrow money to pay for war against Britain**
  • Congress allowed the states to fall into debt and taxed trade between states.
articles of confederation1
Articles of Confederation

Success

  • Governed the nation during the Revolutionary War
  • Negotiated the Treaty of Paris of 1783 at the end of the war
  • Northwest Territory Passed the Land Ordinances of 1785 Passed the Northwest Ordinances 1787

Weaknesses

  • Lacked power to enforce laws
  • Lacked power to levy/collect taxes
  • Lacked power to regulate trade among the states
  • Required all 13 states to approved changes in the Articles.
shays s rebellion
Shays’s Rebellion
  • The burden of taxes fell upon American citizens
  • Daniel Shays decided he had enough
    • He was a farmer who had fallen into heavy debt
    • The Massachusetts courts were threatening to take his farm away as payment for his debts.
shays s rebellion1
Shays’s Rebellion
  • He thought that the state had no right to punish him for a problem the state had created
  • A group of 1200 farmers marched to the courthouse.
  • The governor ordered state troops to break up the march
shays s rebellion2
Shays’s Rebellion
  • Shays was defeated
  • American began to fear that there would be more violent incidents.
  • It was now clear that the states needed to set up a stronger central government.
  • Now they had reason for action. If government couldn’t control their own people how could they control or defend/protect from other countries
shays s rebellion outcome
Shays’s Rebellion Outcome
  • In 1787, 12 of the states sent delegates to a meeting in Philadelphia
  • The purpose of the meeting was to revise the Articles of Confederation.
think pair share articles of confederation
Think-Pair-Share:Articles of Confederation
  • Think & Answer in your notebook:

1.Who had most powers under the Articles of Confederation?

2.Why were the Americans afraid to set up a strong national or central government?

3.Mention 2-5 weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.

process acrostic poem articles of confederation
Process : Acrostic PoemArticles of Confederation

Print the word “Articles” or “Confederation” vertically - letter by letter, along the left margin of the page. Each letter then becomes the starting point for a word, phrase, or sentence that describes the topic.

A_____________________________

R_____________________________

T_____________________________

I_____________________________

C_____________________________

L_____________________________

E_____________________________

S_____________________________

Example:

Articles of Confederation

After the war- the new 13 states

Recreated a new government

That gave more power to the states

Independent states working on their own

C

LES

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