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Chapter 1 “ Introduction to Chemistry”. Charles Page High School Chemistry Stephen L. Cotton. Section 1.1 Chemistry. OBJECTIVES: Identify five traditional areas of study in chemistry. Section 1.1 Chemistry. OBJECTIVES: Relate pure chemistry to applied chemistry.

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chapter 1 introduction to chemistry

Chapter 1“Introduction to Chemistry”

Charles Page High School

Chemistry

Stephen L. Cotton

section 1 1 chemistry
Section 1.1Chemistry
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Identify five traditional areas of study in chemistry.
section 1 1 chemistry1
Section 1.1Chemistry
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Relate pure chemistry to applied chemistry.
section 1 1 chemistry2
Section 1.1Chemistry
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Identify reasons to study chemistry.
what is chemistry
What is Chemistry?
  • Chemistry is the study of the composition of “matter” – (matter is anything with mass and occupies space), its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes.
  • Has a definite affect on everyday life - taste of foods, grades of gasoline, etc.
  • Living and nonliving things are made of matter.
slide6

Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes – such as burning fuels.

C2H5OH+3O2 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + Energy

Reactants  Products

5 major areas of chemistry
5 Major Areas of Chemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry- concerned with the composition of substances.
  • Inorganic Chemistry- primarily deals with substances without carbon
  • Organic Chemistry- essentially all substances containing carbon
  • Biochemistry- Chemistry of living things
  • Physical Chemistry- describes the behavior of chemicals (ex. stretching); involves lots of math!

Boundaries not firm – they overlap and interact

what is chemistry1
What is Chemistry?
  • Pure chemistry- gathers knowledge for the sake of knowledge
  • Applied Chemistry- is using chemistry to attain certain goals, in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing – leads to an application * Nylon – Figure 1.3, page 9

* Aspirin (C9H8O4) - to relieve pain

* Use of TECHNOLOGY (benefit!)

why study chemistry
Why Study Chemistry?
  • Everyone and everything around us involves chemistry – explains our world
  • What in the world isn’t Chemistry?
  • Helps you make choices; helps make you a better informed citizen
  • A possible career for your future
  • Used to attain a specific goal
  • What did we describe as “pure” and “applied” chemistry?
why study chemistry1
Why Study Chemistry?
  • Figure 1.2, page 8
    • What benefits do each of the pictures represent in improving our lives?
    • Give examples in your daily life that involve use of chemistry, and things that do not?
section 1 2 chemistry far and wide
Section 1.2Chemistry Far and Wide
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Identify some areas of research affected by chemistry.
section 1 2 chemistry far and wide1
Section 1.2Chemistry Far and Wide
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Describe some examples of research in chemistry.
section 1 2 chemistry far and wide2
Section 1.2Chemistry Far and Wide
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Distinguish between macroscopic and microscopic views.
chemistry far and wide
Chemistry Far and Wide
  • Chemists design materials to fit specific needs – velcro (Patented in 1955) on page 12
  • perfume, steel, ceramics, plastics, rubber, paints, nonstick cooking utensils, polyester fibers
  • Two different ways to look at the world: macroscopic and microscopic
chemistry far and wide1
Chemistry Far and Wide
  • Energy – we constantly have greater demands
    • We can conserve it; use wisely
    • We can try to produce more; oil from soybeans to make biodiesel
    • fossil fuels, solar, batteries (that store energy – rechargeable?), nuclear (don’t forget pollution!)
chemistry far and wide2
Chemistry Far and Wide
  • Medicine and Biotechnology-
    • Supply materials doctors use to treat patients
    • vitamin C, penicillin, aspirin (C9H8O4)
    • materials for artery transplants and hipbones
    • bacteria producing insulin
chemistry far and wide3
Chemistry Far and Wide
  • Agriculture
    • Produce the world’s food supply
    • Use chemistry for better productivity – soil, water, weeds
    • plant growth hormones
    • ways to protect crops; insecticides
    • disease resistant plants
chemistry far and wide4
Chemistry Far and Wide
  • The Environment
    • both risks and benefits involved in discoveries
    • Pollutants need to be 1) identified and 2) prevented
    • Lead paint was prohibited in 1978; Leaded gasoline? Drinking water?
    • carbon dioxide, ozone, global warming
slide20

- Page 16

Let’s examine some information from a graph.

88.2%

440,000

After lead was banned in gasoline and public water supply systems, less lead entered the environment.

chemistry far and wide5
Chemistry Far and Wide
  • The Universe
    • Need to gather data from afar, and analyze matter brought back to Earth
    • composition of the planets
    • analyze moon rocks
    • planet atmospheres
    • life on other planets?
section 1 3 thinking like a scientist
Section 1.3Thinking Like a Scientist
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Describe how Lavoisier transformed chemistry.
section 1 3 thinking like a scientist1
Section 1.3Thinking Like a Scientist
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Identify three steps in the scientific method.
section 1 3 thinking like a scientist2
Section 1.3Thinking Like a Scientist
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Explain why collaboration and communication are important in science.
alchemy developed the tools and techniques for working with chemicals
Alchemy – developed the tools and techniques for working with chemicals
  • The word chemistry comes from alchemy – practiced in China and India since 400 B.C.
  • Alchemy has two sides:
    • Practical: techniques for working with metals, glass, dyes, etc.
    • Mystical: concepts like perfection – gold was a perfect metal
an experimental approach
An Experimental Approach
  • In the 1500s, a shift started from alchemy to science – King Charles II was a supporter of the sciences
  • “Royal Society of London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge”
  • Encouraged scientists to use more experimental evidence, and not philosophical debates
lavoisier
Lavoisier
  • In the late 1700s, Antoine Lavoisier helped transform chemistry from a science of observation to the science of measurement – still used today
  • He settled a long-standing debate about burning, which was…
    • Oxygen was required!
the scientific method
The Scientific Method
  • A logical approach to solving problems or answering questions.
  • Starts with observation- noting and recording information and facts
  • hypothesis- a proposed explanation for the observation; must be tested by an experiment
steps in the scientific method
Steps in the Scientific Method

1. Observations (uses your senses)

a)quantitative involves numbers = 95oF

b)qualitative is word description = hot

2. Formulating hypotheses (ideas)

- possible explanation for the observation, or “educated” guess

3. Performing experiments (the test)

- gathers new information to help decide

whether the hypothesis is valid

scientific method
Scientific Method
  • “controlled” experiment- designed to test the hypothesis
  • only two possible answers:
    • hypothesis is right
    • hypothesis is wrong
  • We gather data and observations by doing the experiment
  • Modify hypothesis - repeat the cycle
scientific method1
Scientific Method
  • We deal with variables, or factors that can change. Two types:

1) Manipulated variable (or independent variable) is the one that we change

2) Responding variable (or dependent variable) is the one observed during the experiment

  • For results to be accepted, the experiment needs to always produce the same result
outcomes over the long term
Outcomes over the long term…
  • Theory (Model)

- A set of well-tested hypotheses that give an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon – not able to be proved

  • Natural Law (or Scientific Law)

- The same observation applies to many

different systems; summarizes results

- an example would be:

the Law of Conservation of Mass

slide33

Law vs. Theory

  • A law summarizes what has happened.
  • A theory (model) is an attempt to explain why it happened – this changes as new information is gathered.
slide34

- Page 22

The procedure that is used to test the hypothesis

Using your senses to obtain information

Hypothesis is a proposed explanation; should be based on previous knowledge; an “educated” guess

Tells what happened

A well-tested explanation for the observations; cannot be proven due to new discoveries

collaboration communication
Collaboration / Communication
  • When scientists share ideas by collaboration and communication, they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome
  • Collaboration – Fig. 1.21, p. 24
  • How is communication done?
  • Is the Internet reliable information?
    • http://www.dhmo.org
section 1 4 problem solving in chemistry
Section 1.4Problem Solving in Chemistry
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Identify two general steps in problem solving.
section 1 4 problem solving in chemistry1
Section 1.4Problem Solving in Chemistry
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Describe three steps for solving numeric problems.
section 1 4 problem solving in chemistry2
Section 1.4Problem Solving in Chemistry
  • OBJECTIVES:
    • Describe two steps for solving conceptual problems.
problem solving in chemistry
Problem Solving in Chemistry
  • We are faced with problems each day, and not just in chemistry
  • A solution (answer) needs to be found
  • Trial and Error may work sometimes?
  • But, there is a method to problem solving that works better, and these are skills that no one is born knowing – they need to be learned.
problem solving in chemistry1
Problem Solving in Chemistry
  • Effective problem solving usually involves two general steps:
    • Developing a plan
    • Implementing that plan
  • The skills you use to solve a word problem in chemistry are NOT different from those techniques used in shopping, cooking, or planning a party.
solving numeric problems
Solving Numeric Problems
  • Measurements are an important part of chemistry; thus many of our word problems involve use of mathmatics
    • Word problems are real life problems, and sometimes more information is presented than needed for a solution
  • Following skills presented will help you become more successful
solving numeric problems1
Solving Numeric Problems
  • The three steps we will use for solving a numeric word problem are:
    • Analyze
    • Calculate
    • Evaluate
  • The following slides tell the meaning of these three steps in detail.

Let’s learn how to ACE these numeric word problems!

solving numeric problems2
Solving Numeric Problems
  • Analyze: this is the starting point
    • Determine what are the known factors, and write them down on your paper!
    • Determine what is the unknown. If it is a number, determine the units needed
    • Plan how to relate these factors- choose an equation; use table or graph
  • This is the heart of successful problem solving techniques – it is the PLAN
solving numeric problems3
Solving Numeric Problems
  • Calculate:perform the mathematics
    • If your plan is correct, this is the easiest step.
    • Calculator used? Do it correctly!
    • May involve rearranging an equation algebraically; or, doing some conversion of units to some other units.
solving numeric problems4
Solving Numeric Problems
  • Evaluate: – the finishing step
    • Is it reasonable? Make sense? Do an estimate for the answer, and check your calculations.
    • Need to round off the answer?
    • Do you need scientific notation?
    • Do you have the correct units?
    • Did you answer the question?
solving conceptual problems
Solving Conceptual Problems
  • Not all word problems in chemistry involve doing calculations
  • Nonnumeric problems are called conceptual problems – ask you to apply concepts to a new situation
  • Steps are:
    • Analyze and 2) Solve
  • Plan needed to link known to unknown, but no checking units or calculations
  • Do Conceptual Problem 2.1 on page 46
slide47

End of Chapter 1

Introduction to Chemistry

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