Chapter 1 introduction to chemistry
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Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry. What is Chemistry Scientific Method Chemistry Strategies. What is a Chemist?. A chemist studies matter on the atomic and molecular levels in order to understand how elements join together to form different substances.

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry

What is Chemistry

Scientific Method

Chemistry Strategies


What is a Chemist?

  • A chemist studies matter on the atomic and molecular levels in order to understand how elements join together to form different substances.

  • A chemist also measures proportions, reaction rates, and various other properties of substances in order to understand more about those substances.

  • Interesting Note: The term "chemist" internationally should not be confused with the British meaning of the term, which refers to what a person in the United States would call a pharmacist.


5 Areas of Chemistry

  • Organic chemistry – Carbon containing compounds

  • Inorganic chemistry – Non carbon compounds or carbon metallic compounds

  • Physical chemistry – Physical and thermodynamic properties of matter

  • Analytical chemistry – qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemicals

  • Bio chemistry – Chemistry applied to life systems


Good

Prescription drugs

Pesticides

Herbicides

New Materials

Caffeine

Bad

Environmental Pollution

Poisons

Unintended consequences

What are Chemicals?Any substance with definite composition.Are they Good or Bad?


A Brief History of Scientific Inquiry


Aristotle (384 BC)

  • Aristotle, more than any other thinker, determined the orientation and the content of Western intellectual history.

  • He was the author of a philosophical and scientific system that through the centuries became embedded in Western thinking.


Aristotle

  • In other words, Aristotle was so famous that his work influenced thinking in the Western world from his time to the present.

  • This was fine when he was right. But he was so influential that his mistakes were never noticed.


Aristotle

  • Aristotle and his contemporaries believed that all problems could be solved by thinking about them.

  • The idea of Verification through doing an experiment was not done until nearly two thousand years later.


Galileo (early 1600’s)

  • Considered to be one of the first true scientists.

  • Carried out logical experiments to test old and new ideas

  • Ran afoul of the main power in Europe and ended his life in house imprisonment.


Robert Boyle (late 1600’s)

  • Robert Boyle is considered to be the father of the scientific method of inquiry.

  • His new philosophy included new methods of experimental science, in which scientists sought to prove or disprove hypotheses through careful experiments.


John Dalton (1700’s)

  • Father of Modern Chemistry

  • Atomic Theory

  • Theory of Gases

  • Molecular Weights

  • Elements and Compounds

  • Analytical techniques to carry out research


The Scientific Process


Scientific Method

  • Problem

  • Observations

  • Hypothesis

  • Experiment

  • Data Analysis

  • Conclusion

  • Retest

  • Publish


Problem

  • A problem is a question based upon observations.


Observations

  • Find out as much Information about the problem as possible.


Hypothesis

  • A suggested solution to the problem.

  • If…Then…


Experiment

A procedure to test the hypothesis.

  • Control – experiment without the variable

  • Variable – factor being tested


Record and Analyze Data

Do the results of the experiment verify our hypothesis?


Make a Conclusion

  • The answer to the hypothesis. Either a confirmation or modification is necessary.


Publish and Retest

In order to verify the results, experiments must be retested by other scientists.


Cold Fusion Introduction


Cold Fusion Derailed


Homework (due tomorrow)

  • Terms Chapter 1 – Write term and definition in a complete sentence(s).

  • Pg 19, 20 [2, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 14]

  • Did your parents do the survey????


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