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chapter 8 Principles of Exercise Training Learning Objectives Learn the differences between muscular strength, power, and endurance Examine how strength is gained through resistance training Find out how specific types of aerobic and anaerobic training can improve performance

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chapter

8

Principles of Exercise Training


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Learning Objectives

  • Learn the differences between muscular strength, power, and endurance

  • Examine how strength is gained through resistance training

  • Find out how specific types of aerobic and anaerobic training can improve performance

  • Discover techniques to monitor changes in training


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Terminology

Strength is the maximal force a muscle group can generate

Power is the rate of performing work

Power = force x distance / time

Muscular endurance is the capacity to sustain repeated muscle actions or a single static contraction


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An Isokinetic Testingand Training Device

© Tom Roberts


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Aerobic Power

  • The rate of energy release by cellular metabolic processes that depend on the involvement and availability of oxygen

  • Maximal aerobic power is the maximal capacity for aerobic resynthesis of ATP


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Anaerobic Power

  • The rate of energy release by cellular metabolic processes that function without the involvement of oxygen

  • Maximal anaerobic power is the maximal capacity of the anaerobic system to produce ATP


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General Principles of Training

  • Individuality: any training program must consider the specific needs and abilities of the individual for whom it is designed

  • Specificity: adaptations to training are highly specific to the nature of the training activity and should be carefully matched to an athlete’s specific performance needs

  • Reversibility: training programs must include a maintenance plan to ensure that the gains from training are not lost

  • Progressive overload: the training stimulus must be progressively increased as the body adapts to the current stimulus

  • Hard/easy: programs must alternate high-intensity workouts with low-intensity workouts to help the body recover and achieve optimal training adaptations

  • Periodization: the gradual cycling of specificity, intensity, and volume of training to achieve peak levels of fitness for competition


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Resistance Training Programs

Training Needs Analysis

  • Muscle groups to be trained

  • Type of training

  • Energy systems to be trained

  • Sites of concern for injury prevention


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Designing Resistance Training Programs: Things to Decide

  • Exercises that will be performed

  • Order in which they will be performed

  • Number of sets for each exercise

  • Rest periods between sets and exercises

  • Intensity (amount of resistance), number of repetitions, and velocity of movement



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Types of Resistance Training

  • Static-contraction (isometric) resistance training

  • Free weights

  • Eccentric training

  • Variable-resistance training

  • Isokinetic training

  • Plyometrics

  • Electrical stimulation training



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A Variable-Resistance Training Device During the Two-Arm Curl

© Human Kinetics


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Plyometric Box Jumping During the Two-Arm Curl


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Resistance Training Programs During the Two-Arm Curl

Key Points

  • Low-repetition, high-resistance training enhances strength development

  • High-repetition, low-resistance training optimizes muscular endurance

  • Periodization is important to prevent overtraining and burnout

  • A typical periodization cycle has 4 active phases, each emphasizing a different muscular fitness component, plus an active recovery

(continued)


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Resistance Training Programs During the Two-Arm Curl(continued)

Key Points

  • Resistance training can use static or dynamic contractions

  • Eccentric training appears to be essential to maximizing hypertrophy

  • Electrical stimulation can be successfully used in rehabilitating athletes


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Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training Programs During the Two-Arm Curl

  • Programs are designed along a continuum

  • Anaerobic power is represented by the ATP-PCr system and anaerobic glycolytic system, while aerobic power is represented by the oxidative system


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Variables to Manipulate for During the Two-Arm CurlInterval Training

  • Rate of the exercise interval

  • Distance of the exercise interval

  • Number of repetitions and sets during each training session

  • Duration of rest or active recovery interval

  • Type of activity during the active recovery interval

  • Frequency of training per week


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Blood Lactate Concentration in a Single Runner After a Single Set of 5 Repetitions of Interval Training at 3 Different Paces


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Types of Training Single Set of 5 Repetitions of Interval Training at 3

  • Interval training

  • Continuous training

  • Interval-circuit training


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Anaerobic and Aerobic Single Set of 5 Repetitions of Interval Training at 3 Power Training

Key Points

  • Training programs are designed to train one or more of the three metabolic energy systems

  • Interval training consists of repeated bouts of high- to moderate-intensity exercise interspersed with periods of rest or reduced-intensity exercise

  • Exercise intensity and recovery rate can be monitored with a heart rate monitor

  • Interval training is appropriate for all sports

(continued)


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Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training Single Set of 5 Repetitions of Interval Training at 3 (continued)

Key Points

  • Continuous training has no rest intervals and can vary from LSD training to high-intensity training

  • Fartlek training is an excellent activity for recovering from several days of more intense exercise

  • Interval-circuit training combines interval training and circuittraining into one workout


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