Principles of training
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PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING. PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING. Specificity Overload Progression Reversibility. SPECIFICITY. The training must be suitable to the particular sport or aspect of fitness. OVERLOAD. Making the body work harder to improve it (F.I.T.T.). PROGRESSION.

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PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING

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Principles of training

PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING


Principles of training1

PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING

  • Specificity

  • Overload

  • Progression

  • Reversibility


Specificity

SPECIFICITY

  • The training must be suitable to the particular sport or aspect of fitness.


Overload

OVERLOAD

  • Making the body work harder to improve it

  • (F.I.T.T.)


Progression

PROGRESSION

  • As the body adapts training needs to be more progressive so that greater demands are made on it.


Repetitions

REPETITIONS

  • Number of times you repeat an exercise


Principles of training

SETS

  • A group of repetitions is called a set


Aerobic fitness

AEROBIC FITNESS

Having a high aerobic fitness level means


Aerobic fitness1

AEROBIC FITNESS

  • You can exercise for longer without feeling tired


Aerobic fitness2

AEROBIC FITNESS

  • You can use up more oxygen when you’re exercising


Aerobic fitness advantages

AEROBIC FITNESS ADVANTAGES

  • Your heart rate will be lower when resting and when exercising


Aerobic fitness disadvantages

AEROBIC FITNESSDISADVANTAGES

  • Sprinting speed may be reduced due to reduced efficiency of fast twitch fibres


Anaerobic fitness

ANAEROBIC FITNESS

Advantages

  • provides energy for short explosive activities


Anaerobic fitness1

ANAEROBIC FITNESS

Disadvantages

  • Production of lactic acid causing pain


Weight training improves muscle strength and tone

Advantages

Creates muscle overload safely and gradually.

Can use free weight or specialist machines to target specific muscles

Individual training programmes can be designed

Disadvantages

Need to work with partner when using free standing weights

Increased risk of injury from lifting a weight that is too heavy

Weight trainingImproves muscle strength and tone


Circuit training

CIRCUIT TRAINING

  • Circuit Training is an adaptable form of training.

  • A variety of exercises and skills are done at different locations in a gym, hall or even outdoors.

  • Each activity is known as a station.


Circuit training1

Advantages

Can be designed to suit any activity

Individual pace can be set

Can be set up almost anywhere

Less boring because all exercises are different

Can accommodate a large number of people in a small area.

Disadvantages

Can take time to set up

People can get in each others way if circuit is busy

CIRCUIT TRAINING


Interval training alternating short near maximum bursts of speed with times of rest mild exercise

Advantages

Can mix aerobic and anaerobic exercise

Easy to see when an athlete isn’t trying

Disadvantages

Hard to keep going

Can be boring

INTERVAL TRAININGAlternating short near maximum bursts of speed with times of rest /mild exercise


Fartlek training changes in intensity and type of exercise without stopping

Advantages

Good for sports that need different paces like football and basketball

Easily changed to suit an individual or a particular sport

Disadvantages

Difficult to see how hard the person is training

Too easy to skip the hard bits if you can’t be bothered

FARTLEK TRAININGChanges in intensity and type of exercise without stopping


Altitude training

ALTITUDE TRAINING

  • Working at high altitudes there is a drop in aerobic performance due to lack of oxygen. So if you train at high altitude the body systems compensate by manufacturing more red blood cells.

  • At least 4 weeks acclimatisation is needed to stabilise performance at altitude


Principles of training

Advantages

Needs only a small amount of easy to use equipment

Good for aerobic fitness and using up body fat

Disadvantages

Can be really boring

Doesn’t improve sprinting so not ideal for many games

CONTINUOUS TRAININGInvolves exercising at a constant rate doing activities like running or cycling/ no resting


Muscular endurance

MUSCULAR ENDURANCE

  • Ability of a muscle or muscle group to keep working for long periods with out tiring

  • Events – long distance running/ cycling

  • Means of improving – lots of repetitions for whichever muscle group you want to improve. e.g.sit-ups, chin-ups, dips, press-ups


Strength

STRENGTH

  • Static – maximum force a muscle group can apply to an immovable object / rugby scrum

  • Explosive –to exert force in one very short but fast movement e.g. shot put/high jump

  • Dynamic – to apply force repeatedly over a long time / useful for doing loads of press-ups or cycling


Flexibility

FLEXIBILITY

  • To improve it you need to move the joint past where it would normally go.

  • Active Stretching – you do the work, slowly and gently stretch a little further than normal

  • Passive Stretching – a partner or coach does the work , tell them straight away if you feel any pain

  • TO INCREASE RANGE OF MOVEMENT HOLD STRETCH FOR 30 SEC. FOR 6 – 8 REPS


Link between flexibility and strength

Link between flexibility and strength

  • Strength training can have negative effect on flexibility.

  • As muscles bulk flexibility can decrease

  • Therefore flexibility training must be done to counteract this


Physiological factors

PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS

  • Illnesses or Medical Conditions –colds can make you short of breath, effect your concentration, make you weak

  • Asthma – affects breathing

  • Staleness – Poor form or staleness can be caused by over doing things like exercising without enough breaks


Physiological factors1

PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS

  • Fatigue – The state of being physically tired, when your body hasn’t had time to recover from exercise – performance can be affected

  • Lack of sleep – without enough sleep you lose strength and concentration more quickly

  • Menstruation – women seem to perform better at certain stages of the menstrual cycle


Smoking

SMOKING

  • Short term effects

  • Causes nose throat and chest irritations

  • Bad breath, loss of taste and appetite

  • Longer recovery rate


Smoking1

SMOKING

  • Long term effects

  • Shortness of breath, reduced lung capacity and oxygen carrying capacity due to carbon monoxide being absorbed

  • Increases the risk of developing heart disease, bronchitis and other diseases

  • Increases risk of cancer of mouth, throat and lungs


Alcohol

ALCOHOL

  • Short term effects

  • Reduced co-ordination/balance/ judgement / vision

  • Slower reaction time

  • Stomach irritation / vomiting

  • Headache, increased blood flow, blood pressure


Alcohol1

ALCOHOL

  • Long term effects

  • Weight gain, kidney problems, cirrhosis of the liver

  • Depression, brain damage

  • Stomach ulcers

  • Heart disease / hardening of the arteries


Drugs

DRUGS

A drug is a chemical substance that affects the body systems


Drugs1

DRUGS

  • S – STIMULANTS

  • N – NARCOTIC ANALGESTICS

  • A – ANABOLIC AGENTS

  • P – PEPTIDE HORMONES

  • D - DIURETICS


Drugs2

DRUGS

  • Stimulants – improves reactions and reflexes and reduces pain

  • BUT

  • Feeling less pain can make an athlete train too hard, can lead to high blood pressure, heart and liver problems and strokes


Drugs3

DRUGS

  • Narcotic Analgestics – kill pain and tiredness. Mask injury

  • BUT

  • they are addictive with unpleasant withdrawal

  • Feeling less pain can make an athlete train too hard.

  • Can lead to constipation and low blood pressure.


Drugs4

DRUGS

  • Anabolic Agents(STEROIDS) –

  • Increase muscle size

  • delay fatigue , therefore you can train for longer

  • Can cause high blood pressure, heart disease infertility and cancer

  • Women may grow facial and body hair and their voice may deepen


Drugs5

DRUGS

  • Diuretics – make you urinate causing weight loss important if you are competing in a certain weight division

  • Can hide traces of other drugs in the body

  • BUT

  • They can cause cramp and dehydration


Drugs6

DRUGS

  • Peptide Hormones

  • Most have a similar effect to anabolic steroids

  • EPO (Erythropoietin) has a similar effect to blood doping

  • BUT

  • They can cause strokes and abnormal growth


Drugs7

DRUGS

  • Beta Blockers – Medicines that lower the heart rate , steady shaking hands and reduce anxiety

  • BUT

  • They are banned in sports where they might give an advantage such as shooting, ski-jumping, snooker and bobsleigh


Drugs8

DRUGS

  • Blood doping -used to simulate high altitude training without actually going to high altitude

  • Red blood cells are taken out of an athlete – their body then makes more red blood cells to replace them

  • Before a competition the red blood cells are injected back so that more oxygen can be carried around the body

  • Possible side effects – allergic reactions, kidney damage, viruses such as aids and blocked capillaries


Body types

BODY TYPES

  • Endo morph

  • Meso morph

  • Ecto morph


Endomorph

ENDOMORPH

DUMPY

Wide hips, lots of fat on body arms and legs but ankles and wrists are relatively slim

Sports – Sumo wrestler need strength, weight and low centre of gravity so they have strong endomorph and mesomorph features


Mesomorph

MESOMORPH

  • Muscular

  • Broad shoulders, narrow hips, low body fat.

  • Mesomorphs are suited to events like decathlon, swimming, gymnastics.

  • Swimming – broad shoulders and good muscles with little body fat will help them move through the water more efficiently. Strong powerful legs to kick and arm to pull will increase speed of swimmer


Ectomorph

ECTOMORPH

  • Thin

  • Narrow shoulders, not much muscle or fat, long and thin arms and legs, thin face and high forehead.

  • High jumpers need to be tall and light but with powerful muscles so a mixture of ectomorph and mesomorphic features is required.

  • Longer legs gives them advantage in jumping, little weight, less to lift


Principles of training

AGE

  • Performance alters as we progress through the ageing process

  • Young age – body still developing

  • Bones and ligaments and tendons not fully formed therefore too much training could cause damage or overuse injuries

  • Young players have lots of energy and enthusiasm but lack concentration and skill is not as fully developed as an older player


Principles of training

AGE

  • Middle – we peak in our twenties

  • You achieve your maximum strength when you are fully grown usually about 20

  • In your 20’s it is still easy to build muscle mass

  • You have more experience that younger players

  • You will be able to train for longer and have good oxygen capacity which will help aerobic fitness


Principles of training

AGE

  • Older Players

  • As we get older eyesight deteriorates and reaction time becomes slower.

  • Bones become fragile and joints stiffen more prone to injury

  • Factors affecting performance with ageing are endurance, speed, flexibility, timing, co-ordination and skill level.

  • Experience is a vital and an older player has gained more experience.

  • Keeping fit will slow down the process of ageing


Psychological factors

PSYCHOLOGICAL fACTORS

  • Tension

  • Anxiety

  • Boredom

  • Motivation


Personalities

PERSONALITIES

  • Introvert

  • Quiet, shy, retiring

  • Individual sports –

  • Routine and repetitive – swimming

  • Like to perform precise and intricate skills

  • Do not enjoy contact sports


Personalities1

PERSONALITIES

  • Extrovert

  • Outgoing, loud and lively

  • Team sports – hockey

  • Enjoy lots of excitment

  • Enjoy fast sport with lots of involvement

  • High levels of excitement – ski-ing


Aggression

AGGRESSION

  • Can be positive and negative

  • Positive

  • Controlled aggression is necessary in most sports, particularly in games such as rugby, or batting and bowling in cricket.

  • A bowler may show aggression in bowling bouncers.

  • In athletics there may be aggression in the run up to the long jump. The expression of ‘attacking ‘the board is often used.


Aggression1

AGGRESSION

  • Negative

  • However aggression must be controlled.

  • When sportsmen and women lose this control it can often lead to foul play.

  • Common in invasion games as well as games such as tennis where racket abuse sometimes occurs.


Feedback

FEEDBACK

  • When we learn new skills we require some information to tell us what we are doing and whether it is correct or not.

  • If we obtain this information from our feelings of the actions the feedback to the brain is called

  • Knowledge of performance

  • or Internal feedback.


Feedback1

FEEDBACK

  • If the performer receives information from a coach the feedback is called

  • Knowledge of Results

  • or External Feedback


Feedback2

FEEDBACK

  • Types of practice

  • To learn a new skill or improve an existing one you must practice.

  • Part Method – one way to learn a complex skill is to learn parts of it ,then put the parts together, e.g. when learning how to do the triple jump.

  • Whole Method – sometimes the skill cannot be broken down e.g. when learning how to do a somersault

  • Massed Practice – continual practice repeating the action over and over again, for example when learning to shoot or passing skills


Feedback3

FEEDBACK

  • Guidance

  • Visual Guidance – Learn by watching a demonstration of the skill, looking at a picture or watching a video.

  • Verbal Guidance – Learn by listening to instructions

  • Manual Guidance – Learn by being helped with the support of a coach, by holding the performer in correct position or with mechanical device such as rig in trampolining


Skills

SKILLS

  • Open skill – When a performer has to adapt to the changing situation or the environment

  • e.g. invasion games such as rugby and netball

  • Closed skill- When skills are performed in isolation without a changing environment

  • e.g. diving, tennis serve, vault in gymnastics


Technological developments

Technological Developments

  • New materials and new designs of equipment have had a considerable impact on sport

  • Clothing– new materials and designs for one-piece suits for swimming, speed skating and athletics have contributed to improved performance times in these and similar events.


Technological developments1

Technological Developments

  • Footwear – sports companies spend considerable amounts of money developing different types of footwear, not just to improve sportsmen’s and womens performance but also to maintain sales in the fashion and recreational market.


Technological developments2

Technological Developments

  • Facilities – New facilities now enable events to take place which would previosly have had to be cancelled because of weather conditions.

  • e.g. The Millenium Stadium in Cardiff with a retractable roof allows football, rugby and cricket to take place irrespective of bad weather.


Technological developments3

Technological Developments

  • Sports surfaces – New Surfaces such as plastic grass have revolutionised the way hockey is played. Artificial cricket wickets are popular in schools as they require considerably less maintainance than traditional grass wickets.

  • Times and distances have improved in Athletics with the introduction of rubberised surfaces and soft landing areas for high jump and pole vault


Technological developments4

Technological Developments

  • Teaching and Coaching – video recording of a sport is useful for the coach and the performer to analyse technique and make comparisons with top class performers.

  • Refereeing – Video replay is now used in a number of sports to help the referee make decisions


Technological developments5

Technological Developments

  • In swimming and athletics -electronic starting, timing and the use of photo finishing help officials make the correct decisions

  • In tennis - the electronic eye can be used to detect whether a service is in


Technological developments6

Technological Developments

  • Spectators – at the back of large stadium, spectators have little chance of seeing the action.

  • However large video screens show replays and miniature cameras in cricket stumps give spectators a taste of what batsmen expect from fast bowlers.


Risk assessment and first aid

RISK ASSESSMENT AND FIRST AID

  • Strain – these occur in the muscles or tendons

  • They are overstretched or possibly torn

  • Cause- by sudden or violent movement, lifting heavy objects with poor technique

  • Treatment – R.I.C.E.


Risk assessment and first aid1

RISK ASSESSMENT AND FIRST AID

  • Sprain – this occurs at a joint

  • The tissues and ligaments are stretched and sometimes torn.

  • This may be minor like a twisted ankle or major where severs and extensive damage has been caused

  • Cause – twisted or suddenly wrenching the joint as a result of running on uneven ground, being tackled in rugby/football or landing awkwardly

  • Treatment – R.I.C.E.


Risk assessment and first aid2

RISK ASSESSMENT AND FIRST AID

  • DISLOCATION

  • This occurs when one or more bones as been displaced at a joint usually as a result of a strong force.

  • The bones have been wrenched into an abnormal position.

  • Treatment – call an ambulance and make the casualty as comfortable as possible


Risk assessment and first aid3

RISK ASSESSMENT AND FIRST AID

  • RICE

  • Rest injured part – stop sport if you carry on you will make injury worse

  • Ice – Apply ice to injured part – this makes blood vessels contract to reduce internal swelling and bleeding

  • Compression – Bandage injured part will help to reduce swelling.

  • Elevation – Support limb at a raised level i.e. above heart level. The flow of blood reduces because it has to flow against gravity.


Recognition of fractures

Recognition of Fractures

  • Fractures are cracks in the bone or an actual break.

  • They are usually accompanied by swelling

  • This is because they damage blood vessels in or around the bone.

  • In an open fracture the skin is torn and the bone pokes out.

  • In a closed fracture it all happens under the skin. The skin itself is alright


Stress fractures

Stress Fractures

  • A stress fracture is a crack along a length of a bone.

  • It is caused by continuous stress over a long period of time

  • Long-distance runners get stress fractures called shin splints


Recognition of symptoms of concussion

Recognition of symptoms of Concussion

  • Unconsciousness, disorientation, memory loss.

  • Caused by a blow to the head

  • Treatment If unconscious place in recovery position and get ambulance

  • If conscious keep casualty under observation for 24 hours


Recognition of symptoms of hypothermia

Recognition of symptoms of Hypothermia

  • Symptoms – Body temperature falls below 35 degrees C

  • Muscles go rigid, heart beats irregularly, casualty may fall unconscious

  • Treatment – steadily raise body temperature to 37 degrees C

  • Put them into warm dry clothing or wrap in a blanket

  • Give hot drinks or maybe a hot bath.


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