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Ballast Water and the Columbia River: Patterns and Reporting Compliance. Christina Simkanin and Mark Sytsma. Aquatic Bioinvasion Research and Policy Institute. Five Major Ports. Receives ≈ 1,700 arrivals a year . Vessel Arrivals Statistics . 51% from Domestic Ports.

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Ballast water and the columbia river patterns and reporting compliance

Ballast Water and the Columbia River: Patterns and Reporting Compliance

Christina Simkanin and Mark Sytsma

Aquatic Bioinvasion Research and Policy Institute


  • Receives ≈ 1,700 arrivals a year


Vessel Arrivals Statistics Compliance

  • 51% from Domestic Ports

  • 49% from Foreign Ports

  • Majority of arrivals are Bulk Carriers

  • Discharge ≈ 6,300,000 m3 a year

  • 22% of discharge from Domestic Ports

  • 78% of discharge from Foreign Ports


Vessel Arrivals – last-port-of-call Compliance

Arrivals from: 3 oceans, 6 continents, 366 ports, 66 countries

From Dr. Ian Davidson, ABRPI


Salinity of Ballast Water Source Port Compliance

Figure from Noble et al., 2006


Unexchanged Ballast Water Discharge Compliance

  • 91% of BW discharged is exchanged

  • ≈ 567,000 m3 of unexchanged water a year


Lower Columbia River Survey Compliance

  • 81 organisms introduced to the LCR since mid 1800’s

BW: 29 Invertebrates,

1 Aquatic Plant

HF: 8 Invertebrates

From Sytsma et al., 2004


Columbia River BW Regulations: Management and Reporting Compliance

National Invasive Species Act: Mandates Voluntary National BW Program for Foreign arrivals

1996

97

98

99

2000

01

02

03

04

05

06


Columbia River BW Regulations: Management and Reporting Compliance

National BW Program Established: Exchange and Reporting Required for Foreign Arrivals

1996

97

98

99

2000

01

02

03

04

05

06


Columbia River BW Regulations: Management and Reporting Compliance

Washington Ballast Water Program: Mandatory Exchange and Reporting for Foreign and Domestic Vessels (exchange exemption South of 50˚N to CR)

1996

97

98

99

2000

01

02

03

04

05

06


Columbia River BW Regulations: Management and Reporting Compliance

Oregon Ballast Water Program: Mandatory Exchange and Reporting for Foreign and Domestic Arrivals (exchange exemption between 40˚N - 50˚N)

1996

97

98

99

2000

01

02

03

04

05

06


Columbia River BW Regulations: Management and Reporting Compliance

USCG Mandatory BW Program: Fines for non-compliance, reporting for Foreign and Domestic arrivals- Exchange for Foreign arrivals only

1996

97

98

99

2000

01

02

03

04

05

06


Reporting Requirements for CR Arrivals Compliance

Foreign Arrivals

Domestic/Coastal Arrivals

USCG Regulations

  • 24 hrs. advance of arrival

  • USCG reporting form: electronic/hardcopy

  • National Ballast Information Clearinghouse (NBIC)

OR-WA Regulations

  • 24 hrs. advance of arrival

  • USCG reporting form: hardcopy

  • Merchants Exchange of Portland (PdxMex)

Figure from Ruiz et al., 2001


Ballast Water Management Reports Compliance

  • Vessels submit BW Reports to the NBIC and PdxMex

  • NBIC receives, processes, and analyzes National Ballast Water data.

  • PdxMex reports are forwarded to State Agencies: WDFW and ODEQ. Data is entered and analyzed by WDFW and PSU

  • Redundancy through duplication of effort between the Federal and State Programs


Reporting Pilot Project Compliance

Aim: To demonstrate that through Federal and State collaboration it’s possible to increase the quantity and quality of ballast water data received, and reduce the duplication of effort thereby increasing efficiency.

  • Utilize the already developed and standardized federal data management program (NBIC)

  • Utilize a regional contact (PSU) to follow-up on missing or erroneous reports and inform vessels/agents on reporting requirements.

  • Quantify the differences in compliance rates between the federal and state programs.


Columbia River Reporting Rates: Compliance

Local/State Level

Data Collection

  • BW Reports from PdxMex

  • Vessel arrivals database

  • Agent Contact

  • Record Keeping

  • Quality Control

*Keep in mind that this data includes all of the ports on the Columbia River, does not include Barges, and all state data before 2005 was collected by the WDFW.


Increasing the Quantity of Data Compliance

Reporting Compliance/State Level

Arrivals Submitting Reports

Arrivals Not Submitting Reports

Pilot Project


Increasing the Quality of Data Compliance

Reporting Compliance/State Level

Submitted

No Report

Late/Incomplete

Pilot Project


Effect of Local Follow-up with Agents Compliance

Submitted Before Agent Contact

Submitted After Agent Contact

Not Submitted

2005

2006


Columbia River Reporting Rates: Compliance

Federal Level

Daily Monitoring of Compliance:

  • Hardcopy Reports: Faxed

  • Web interface: Electronic Reporting

  • Currently vessels which do not report Federally are not contacted by the NBIC or PSU.

  • Federal legislation requires that BW data is collected from ships, or their agents, reporting directly to the NBIC and not via an intermediary.

  • Agents contacted for local follow-up are reminded of Federal reporting requirements.



Reducing Duplication: Increasing Data Efficiency NBIC

Monthly Analysis of Compliance:

  • Comparison of reports received by the State and the NBIC

  • NBIC sends PSU monthly data records of the reports received, which are downloaded into a PSU database

  • Data not contained in these data records i.e. vessels which reported to the state but not the NBIC (includes data gained through local follow-up) are manually entered by PSU staff.


Federal - State Comparison NBIC

Pilot Project Began Contacting

Agents for Follow-up

USCG Increases Penalties,

Establishes coastal reporting


Federal - State Comparison: Increased Data Quality through Local Follow-up

Total Ballast Water Discharged (m3) in the Columbia River Using Three Data Sources


Results Summary: Local Follow-up

Collaboration between the State and Federal programs can lead to:

  • Increased quantity and quality of reports/data

  • Increased reporting compliance over time:

State level:

YES

?

Federal level:

  • Increased data efficiency

These results demonstrate the value of local/regional follow-up to BW data quality; and by decreasing the duplication of effort more time is available for analysis and dissemination of results.


Conclusion Local Follow-up

  • The Columbia River now has one of the most complete ballast water databases in the world (95% of vessels reporting in 2005).

  • Adds to the success of the other ballast water programs on the West Coast:

  • California in 2004, 97% of vessels reporting (Faulkner et al., 2005).

  • Washington, Puget Sound and WA Coastal ports, in 2005, 88% of vessels reporting (WDFW, 2006).


For support and collaboration we thank: Local Follow-up

This project is funded by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission. Assistance and cooperation has been granted by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, The Merchants Exchange of Portland, and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.


For support and collaboration we thank: Local Follow-up

This project is funded by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission. Assistance and cooperation has been granted by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, The Merchants Exchange of Portland, and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.


Reducing Duplication: Increasing Data Efficiency Local Follow-up

Federal Compliance

Reports Entered Manually into database

Report Submitted


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