The colonial economy and the colonial wars
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The Colonial Economy and the Colonial Wars. Summary. Two different cultural centers: New England Chesapeake Bay Broad participation in government. Basic concept of “English liberties.” Little or no tolerance. Conditions improve in the South.

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The Colonial Economy and the Colonial Wars

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The Colonial Economy and the Colonial Wars


Summary . . .

  • Two different cultural centers:

    • New England

    • Chesapeake Bay

  • Broad participation in government.

  • Basic concept of “English liberties.”

  • Little or no tolerance.

  • Conditions improve in the South.

  • Conditions appear to deteriorate in New England.


The Imperial Economic System


Basic principles . . .

  • No understanding of modern capitalism.

  • “Fair price.”

  • Government supported (dictated) monopolies.

  • Major elements of the colonial economy:

    • agriculture

    • commerce

    • limited manufacturing

      • rum

      • ships


The “Triangle

Trade”


The “Triangle Trade”

Timber

Skins

Rum

Fish

Food

Tobacco

Manufactured

Goods

Naval stores

Rice

Deer hides

Sugar

Molasses

Slaves


Closed Economic Systems


The “Colonial Wars”

French

Indians

Indians

English

  • Spanish

Indians


English colonial military organization

  • English colonies in North America primarily civilian.

  • Mercenary military advisors.

    • Miles Standish

    • John Smith

  • Settlers bring traditional concept of militia

    • Universal military obligation, 16-60.

  • Settlers also bring fear of standing army.


  • The “American Way of War”English vs. Indians

    • “Civilization” vs. “Savagery”

    • English colonists in North America:

      • Highly ethnocentric

      • A long way from England

      • A naturally violent society (Thirty Years’ War)

  • Defeat = annihilation

  • Pequot War a good example.


  • The “American Way of War”English vs. Indians

    • Technology actually not that important.

      • Bows more accurate and dependable

      • Firearms only more impressive

    • Key factors:

      • Objective (annihilation)

        • Coordination

        • Discipline

  • Use of Indian allies

  • Economic domination of Indian culture


  • King William’s War

    Queen Anne’s War

    King George’s War

    French and Indian War

    War of the League of Augsburg

    War of the Spanish Succession

    War of the Austrian Succession

    Seven Years’ War

    The “Colonial Wars”


    Crown Point

    French, 1730’s-1759

    British, 1759-1773

    Ticonderoga

    French, 1755-1759

    British, 1759-1775

    US, 1775-1777

    British, 1777-1779

    Albany

    New York City


    Crown Point

    French, 1730’s-1759

    British, 1759-1773

    French

    Iroquois

    Confederation

    Ticonderoga

    French, 1755-1759

    British, 1759-1775

    US, 1775-1777

    British, 1777-1779

    Albany

    New York City


    Crown Point

    French, 1730’s-1759

    British, 1759-1773

    French

    Iroquois

    Confederation

    Ticonderoga

    French, 1755-1759

    British, 1759-1775

    US, 1775-1777

    British, 1777-1779

    Albany

    New York City


    Characteristics of Colonial military service and operations:

    • Few British Regulars in the colonies

    • Militia used primarily for immediate local defense (frontier).

    • Wartime operations conducted by:

      • Deployed Regular forces

      • Colonial volunteers

      • Indians allies


    British Command

    Colonial

    Volunteers

    Indians

    Regulars

    Militia


    British Command

    Militia


    What Americans “learned” . . .

    • Military service = $$

    • British soldiers are scum

    • British officers are stupid and arrogant

    • American ways of fighting are superior

    • American-British military contact sows seeds of rebellion.

    • Militia an important concept, but others fight.


    Seven Years’ Waraka: “French and Indian War”“The Great War for Empire”

    • Starts in North America instead of Europe.

    • Virginia opposition to French presence in Ohio Valley.

    • Major George Washington sent to warn French off.


    “Braddock’s Defeat”

    Fort Duquesne

    Virginia


    “Braddock’s Defeat”

    French

    Advance Guard

    Main Body

    British


    “Braddock’s Defeat”

    French

    Advance Guard

    Main Body

    British


    “Braddock’s Defeat”

    French

    Advance Guard

    Main Body

    British


    “Braddock’s Defeat”

    duh ?


    “Braddock’s Defeat”

    duh ?


    “Braddock’s Defeat”


    “Braddock’s Defeat”

    “Oh, @#$%^!!”


    “Braddock’s Defeat”


    “Braddock’s Defeat”


    “Braddock’s Defeat”

    Remnants of Advance Guard

    Main Body


    “Braddock’s Defeat”

    “???”


    “Braddock’s Defeat”

    “Oh, @#$%^!!!”


    Lessons of “Braddock’s Defeat”

    • American colonials: British are stupid.

    • They don’t understand how to fight here.

    • In reality: Tactical mistake by commander of the advanced guard.


    The Seven Years’ War

    • Fought in Europe as well as North America.

    • Same as previous wars . . .

    • . . . except Britain not doing too well . . .

    • until William Pitt become Prime Minister.

      • understand this is a war for empire,

      • raises more $$$,

      • focus shifts to North America.


    What Americans “learned” . . .

    • Military service = $$

    • British soldiers are scum

    • British officers are stupid and arrogant

    • American ways of fighting are superior

    • American-British military contact sows seeds of rebellion.

    • Militia an important concept, but others fight.

    These “military” lessons will morph into social and political lessons.


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