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Imperial Wars & Colonial Protest. French & Indian War. Empires at War. War breaks out between Great Britain, France & Spain. Fought over a 74 year period of 1689-1763 Fought worldwide in Europe, India & North America. The First Three Imperial Wars. 1. King Williams War – 1689-1697.

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Empires at war
Empires at War

  • War breaks out between Great Britain, France & Spain. Fought over a 74 year period of 1689-1763

  • Fought worldwide in Europe, India & North America


The first three imperial wars
The First Three Imperial Wars

1. King Williams War – 1689-1697.

2. Queen Anne’s War – 1702-1713

  • In both wars, the English tried to invade & take over Quebec but failed b/c Native Americans supported the French

    • Britain won in Nova Scotia from France & trading rights in Spanish America in Queen Anne’s war

      3. King George’s War 1744-1748 – North American colonies were under attack from French & Spanish.

    • In the South, Oglethorpe led attacks against Spanish. In the north, New Englanders captured the French fort Louisbourg.

    • In the Peace Treaty Britain returned the fort in exchange for economic gains in India. New Englanders were furious!


  • After two wars for control of North America, England and France signed a peace treaty in 1713 that granted

  • (A) Acadia, Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay to the British.

  • (B) Acadia, Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay to the French.

  • (C) Maine and the Ohio Valley to France.

  • (D) Louisiana to the British.

  • (E) Limited


War 4 french indian war
War #4: French & Indian War

  • Fighting begins in the colonies & spreads to Europe, not vice versa

  • French & British realized importance of colonies & shipped large numbers of troops over seas for the first time, rather than rely on “amateur” colonial forces

  • Also known as Seven Years War in Europe



French indian war 1754 1763
French & Indian War 1754-1763

  • What happened?

  • The French and Indian War culminated the long struggle between Great Britain and France for control of the North American continent.

  • France lost because its absolute government impeded the development of New France by imposing burdensome economic and immigration restrictions.

  • Great Britain won because its colonies were far more populous than those of New France. In 1754, Britain’s mainland colonies contained 1.2 million people compared to just 75,000 inhabitants of New France.

  • During the French and Indian War, the Algonquian supported the French and the Iroquois supported the British.

  • What caused the French and Indian War?

  • The French and Indian War began as a struggle for control of the upper Ohio River valley.

  • The French and Indian War was part of a wider struggle between Great Britain and France known in Europe as the Seven Years’ War.


Beginning of the war
Beginning of the War

  • From the British perspective, the French provoked the war by building forts in the Ohio River valley. French were trying to stop westward expansion of British colonies

  • Gov. of Va. Sent a small milita led by young colonel named George Washington to take control of a not quite finished French Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh)

  • Washington was forced to surrender to French & Indians on July 3, 1754. Now it was on!


  • How did George Washington start the global war in 1754 that would later come to be known as the Seven Years’ War?

  • (A) Washington forcibly relocated thousands of French Acadians from the area known as Nova Scotia to other French territories.

  • (B) Washington claimed, for his family, the same Ohio territory where the French had built Fort Duquesne.

  • (C) Washington’s men killed a French military leader on the outskirts of Fort Duquesne.

  • (D) Washington recklessly attacked French forces without a battle plan.

  • (E) Washington sent an insulting letter to French leaders in the Ohio territory.


Beginning of the war1
Beginning of the War

  • Lots of failures for British at first – in 1755 General Braddock was defeated near Fort Duquesne, Algonquin Indians ravaged the frontier from western Penn. To North Carolina, British invasions of French Canada failed

  • Oh snap! Now what?


The albany plan of union 1754
The Albany Plan of Union 1754

  • British gov. recognized the need for coordinating colonial defense & called for representatives from several colonies to meet in Albany, NY.

  • Benjamin Franklin had a plan. His Albany Plan called for a united colonial defense against French and Native American threats to frontier settlements. It proposed the formation of a Grand Council of elected delegates to oversee common defense, western expansion, and Indian relations

  • Franklin’s famous “Join, or Die” cartoon dramatically illustrated the need for greater colonial unity.

  • The Albany Plan failed because colonial assemblies did not want to give up their autonomy. At the same time, the British government feared that colonial unity would undermine their authority.


  • Prompted by the British to promote greater intercolonialunity and defense during the French and Indian War, the Albany Congress failed in its attempts to establish colonial home rule because

  • (A) not all colonies sent representatives to Albany.

  • (B) the colonists felt it did not offer enough independence.

  • (C) the British authorities deemed such efforts illegal.

  • (D) the colonists were unwilling to fund the venture.

  • (E) the colonists wanted to preserve their individuality and did not see the need for union.


Immediate effects
Immediate effects

  • British view – British had a bad opinion of colonial military effort, poorly trained , disorderly. Some colonies refused to contribute troops or money to the war effort. British were convinced colonies were unable & unwilling to defend the frontier of the Br. Empire

  • Colonial view – proud of their war record & felt they could successfully provide for their own defense. They were not impressed with British military leadership, troops or strategy which was badly suited for American terrain.


  • Colonists came away from their experience in the

  • French and Indian War feeling

  • (A) confident of their military might.

  • (B) the desire for Britain to better safeguard its colonies.

  • (C) increasingly concerned about Indian attacks.

  • (D) a greater sense of oneness with their British compatriots.

  • (E) eager to break off ties with Britain.


French indian war 1754 17631
French & Indian War 1754-1763

  • Why should you remember the French and Indian War?

  • Great Britain emerged as the world’s foremost naval power.

  • The Peace of Paris of 1763 ended French power in North America. Britain took title to Canada, Spanish Florida, and all the French lands east of the Mississippi River.

  • The French and Indian War left Britain with a large debt. As a result, British leaders planned to impose revenue taxes on their American colonies.

  • The French and Indian War awakened the colonists’ sense of separate identity


Reorganization of the british empire
Reorganization of the British Empire

  • British gov. decided to change its colonial policies

  • Salutary Neglect was over!

  • All 4 imperial wars were expensive, Britain felt there needed to be a large military force in North American to protect American frontiers

  • King George III & the Whigs wanted to pay war debts while reducing the amount of taxes the British were paying in war debt reduction

  • Wanted to make the American colonies bear more of the cost if maintaining the British empire


The proclamation of 1763
The Proclamation of 1763

  • Now that the French threat had been removed, American fur traders and land speculators looked forward to exploiting the vast new lands west of the Appalachian Mountains.

  • While the colonists wanted to expand into the new territories, the British wanted to prevent land-hungry settlers from provoking hostilities with the Indians. The Proclamation of 1763 forbade settlers from crossing the crest of the Appalachian Mountains.

  • Hardy settlers soon defied the prohibition as they pushed over the Appalachian ridges into Kentucky and Tennessee.


  • The Proclamation of 1763

  • (A) exacted burdensome taxes from the colonists to fi -

  • nance Britain’s war debts.

  • (B) granted some frontier territory to Native Americans.

  • (C) prohibited colonists from settling beyond the

  • Appalachians.

  • (D) established royal governors in the colonies.

  • (E) made Florida a British territory.


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