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Muscles PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Muscles. Mitochondria.

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The mitochondria are organelles that provide, energy for the cells. They convert energy into forms that are usable by the cell. Located on the cytoplasm of the cell. The mitochondria are involved in cellular respiration, which generates fuel for the cells activities. The Mitochondria is used for the splitting of glucose through pyruvate.

The three muscle system

The three muscle system

  • Skeletal muscle:

    -Are striated and tubular

    -contract voluntarily

    -are usually attached to the bones of the skeleton.

    ( Ex. Biceps, Triceps, long muscles)


  • Smooth Muscles:

    -Are not striated

    -have one nucleolus

    -contract, voluntarily

    -Are formed on the walls of Organs

    ( Ex. Vessels, Arteries, walls of Organs)


  • Cardiac Muscles:

    -Are striated and tubular and are branched

    -Have one nucleolus

    -Contract involuntarily

    -Are formed on the walls of the Heart

    ( Ex.Heart)

The cooperation of skeletal muscles

The cooperation of Skeletal Muscles

  • When muscles contract they shorten, this means muscles can only pull. For the action of each muscles there is a opposite action. For example; the bicep muscles causes the arm to flex in which the muscle shortens, and then the contraction of the muscle shortens and the opposite muscle triceps causes the arm to extend.

Contraction of skeletal muscles

Contraction of Skeletal muscles

Skeletal muscles and fibers

Skeletal Muscles and Fibers

The skeleton muscles consists of tendons, a heavy band of tissues that each end is attached to, bone to bone. Muscle fibers are organized into large bundles. The muscle consists of clusters of such bundles of muscle fibers. Blood vessels run between the muscle fibers.

Hierarchy of muscles:


-muscle fiber

-another band of muscle fiber



Skeletal muscle fibers

Skeletal Muscle fibers



  • Most of the muscle fiber is made up of myofibrils and myofilaments, which contain protein structures that are responsible for muscle contraction. The myofilament bends and attached to the actin molecules, the myofilament is then pulled along the actin molecule, in the direction of the flex. Each step of the flexing requires a one molecule of ATP.


The role of calcium

The Role of Calcium.

  • When muscles are relaxed, its myosin head are raised and ready through the splitting of ATP. However it is not able to bind together with ease, because the actin molecule is physically blocked by a protein known as tropomyosin. For the muscle to contract the tropomyosin must be moved out of the bonding. For this to happen, Tropomyosin and troponin form complex calcium ions. The troponin attracts calcium ions and combine on top of the binding that is along the actin. The binding bond around the actin molecule loosens exposing the binding sites for the myosin heads.

What are the energy sources for muscle contraction

What are the energy sources for muscle contraction

1) The primary function of ATP is to transfer from one location to another. At rest the muscle tends to produce more ATP than it needs, the excess ATP combines with creatine, (amino acids.)

Creatine phosphate + ADP-------------------- > creatine + ATP

2)During contraction of the muscles, the cross bridge breaks down ATP producing ADP. The energy ADP recharges to reverse the reaction.

ADP+ Creatine phosphate <----------- ATP +Creatine

Aerobic cellular respiration

Aerobic cellular respiration

This respiration takes place in the mitochondrion, glycogen and fat is stored in the muscles of the cell. Myoglobin an oxygen carrying molecule that is similar to hemoglobin is synthesized in muscle cells. Its presence accounts for its reddish color of the skeletal muscle.



Like creatine phosphate breakdown, supplies ATP without consuming oxygen. If there is an accumulation of lactate in a muscle fiber, the acidity concentration increases causing more fatigue in the performance. Lack of calcium ions are shown that’s why using creative in workout is necessary.

Oxygen deficiency

Oxygen deficiency

  • When workout begins to intensify and more muscle contraction rises, more ATP consumption and ADP production is taking place on the skeletal muscles. The mitochondrion being the main power house for energy, begins to absorb more water, and Inhalation of oxygen increases. Heavy breathing is then shown.

Muscle health and homeostasis

Muscle health and Homeostasis

  • In general muscle systems experience less disorders that the organ systems. Muscles are venerable to injuries that result from intense stress on the tendons, muscles also may be damaged through the lack of use. Atrophy is a reduce in the size of the muscle due to the lack of the nourishment. If atrophy occurs the muscle fibers decrease in size and become weaker. People who experience damage to the nervous system or become paralyzed experience this are affected and when they get affected

Atrophy in muscles

Atrophy in muscles

Types of skeletal m uscle fibers

Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers

  • The human body contains at least two types of skeletal muscle fibers: Fat twitch, fibers and slow twitch fibers.

  • Fast twitch fibers are the most common in muscle contracting, fast fibers twitch in 0.01 of a second. Fat fibers are large in diameter, and densely packed myofibrils, large glycogen reserves and relatively a few mitochondria's. The tension force is directly proportioned to the amount of myofibrils. So the fast twitch fibers have more power. The disadvantage is fast fibers fatigue rapidly.

  • Slow fibers are only about half the diameter of fast fibers and they take three times as long to contract. The slow twitch muscle doesn’t fatigue has much, and can contract for longer periods of times.

Common disorders and ailments of the skeletal muscle

Common Disorders and Ailments of the Skeletal muscle.

  • Muscular Dystrophy: When skeletal muscle loses strength.

  • Botulism: A potential muscular paralysis by a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium Botulinum; this toxin prevents the release of muscle stimulating compound.

  • Cramps: painful muscle spasm triggered by intense exercise.

  • Myositis: Muscle inflammation and weakness resulting from infection.

  • Muscle soreness: Pain Stiffness, tenderness felt for hours after extraneous exercise, associated with the disruption of myofibrils.

How weed plays a role in relaxing muscle spasm

How weed plays a role in relaxing muscle spasm

  • Smoking marijuana may provide relief for strained muscles. Marijuana plays a short term role when it comes to easing MS, Multiple Sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis is the stiffening of muscles and the shutdown of the nervous system related to an illness. Essentially marijuana helps ease pain from muscle spasms.

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