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Muscles. So exciting . Muscle Control. Involuntary Muscle : not under conscious control Ex: heartbeat, digestion Voluntary Muscle : Under your control Ex: walking, jumping, dancing…. Types of Muscles. Smooth Locations: Walls of hollow organs (Stomach, lungs etc.)

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Muscles

Muscles

So exciting


Muscle control
Muscle Control

  • Involuntary Muscle: not under conscious control

  • Ex: heartbeat, digestion

  • Voluntary Muscle: Under your control

  • Ex: walking, jumping, dancing…


Types of muscles
Types of Muscles

Smooth

Locations:

Walls of hollow organs (Stomach, lungs etc.)

Blood vessels

Eyes

Skin

Glands

Not striated

Uses:

Food movement through digestive tract

Regulation of blood vessel diameter

Pupil dilation

Emptying of bladder


Cardiac

Location:

Heart

Striated

Involuntary

Uses:

Pumps blood

Major source that moves blood throughout the body


Skeletal

Location:

Attached to bones

Striated

Uses:

Voluntary and involuntary movements


Types of muscles take notes
Types of MusclesTake NOTES!!

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bwOE1MEginA


Anatomy of a muscle cell
Anatomy of a Muscle Cell

  • Take notes!!!

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uY2ZOsCnXIA


Skeletal muscle contraction
Skeletal Muscle Contraction

Acetylcholine reaches the muscle cell

Na+ gates on muscle open

Muscle fires

Ca2+ enters the muscle cell cytoplasm

Ca2+ binds to troponin and tropomyosin

Troponin moves away from the actin

Myosin cross-bridges attach to actin

Cross-bridges pull the actin

Actin filaments slide past myosin

ATP attaches to myosin cross-bridges

Cross-bridges release

Cross-bridges reattach


Let s see it in action take notes
Let’s see it in Action! Take notes.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e3Nq-P1ww5E

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hqynCsign8E



BLOOD AND THE HEART FUN FACTS

♦ An average adult human contains

about 5 liters (5.3qt) of blood.

♦ The blood makes up about onethirteenth

of the body’s weight.

♦ The adult heart weighs about 280 grams (10 oz.)

♦ At rest, the heart pumps out about 80 millimeters

(2.6 oz) of blood with each beat.

♦ The heart beats, on average, 70 times each

minute at rest.

♦ This means all the blood is circulated (goes

round the body once) in about one minute.

♦ During strenuous exercise the heart can pump

six to eight times the amount of blood that it

pumps at rest.


Superior vena cava and

inferior vena cava – bring

deoxygenated blood to

right atrium

Pulmonary artery – takes

blood away from right

ventricle to the lungs for

O2

Pulmonary veins – bring oxygenated blood

from lungs to left atrium

Aorta – takes blood away from left ventricle to

rest of the body


Chambers and Valves

• SEPTUM divides into R and L halves

• Upper chambers – RIGHT ATRIUM and LEFT ATRIUM

• Lower chambers – RIGHT VENTRICLE and LEFT VENTRICLE

• Four heart valves permit flow of blood in one direction


TRICUSPID VALVE – between right atrium and

right ventricle

BICUSPID (MITRAL) VALVE – between left atrium

and left ventricle

Semilunar valves are located where blood leaves

the heart - PULMONARY SEMILUNAR VALVE

and AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE


Overview

The heart=a muscular double pump with 2 functions

Overview

  • The right side receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and tissues and then pumps it to the lungs to pick up oxygen and dispel carbon dioxide

  • Its left side receives oxygenated blood returning from the lungs and pumps this blood throughout the body to supply oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues


  • Two circulations

    • Systemic circuit: blood vessels that transport blood to and from all the body tissues

    • Pulmonary circuit: blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs


Chambers of the heart sides are labeled in reference to the patient facing you
Chambers of the heartsides are labeled in reference to the patient facing you

  • Two atria

    • Right atrium

    • Left atrium

  • Two ventricles

    • Right ventricle

    • Left ventricle

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Valves three tricuspid one bicuspid
Valvesthree: tricuspidone: bicuspid

(cusp means flap)

  • “Tricuspid” valve

    • RA to RV

  • Pulmonary valve

    • RV to pulmonary trunk (branches R and L)

  • Bicuspid valve (the bicuspid one)

    • LA to LV

  • Aortic valve

    • LV to aorta



Function of semilunar valves

(Aortic and pulmonic valves)


Meet the heart
Meet the Heart

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vi1JK6IYVt8


Pattern of flow simple to more detailed
Pattern of flow(simple to more detailed)

Body to right heart to lungs to

left heart to body

  • Body

  • RA

  • RV

  • Lungs

  • LA

  • LV

  • Boby

Body, then via vena cavasto RA, to RV via tricuspid valve, then to lungs through pulmonary semilunar valve and via pulmonary arteries, then to LA via pulmonary veins, to LV via bicuspid, then to body via aortic semilunar valve and the aorta

LEARN THIS


Cardiac cycle
Cardiac Cycle

Blood enters the atria through the vena cava (R) and the Pulmonary vein (L)

Atria will contract

Blood is pushed through the AV valves into the ventricles

Ventricles contract and AV valves close

Blood is pushed though the pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves into the pulmonary trunk and the aorta

Ventricles relax and valves close


Cardiac cycle tutorial
Cardiac Cycle Tutorial

  • http://faculty.alverno.edu/bowneps/cardiaccycle/cardiaccycle1map.htm


PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART

The heart is a double pump. When the heart

beats…

Right Heart

Deoxygenated blood flows into heart from vena

Cava ---right atrium ---tricuspid valve--- right

ventricle --pulmonary semilunar valve---

pulmonary artery ---lungs (for oxygen)

Left Heart

Oxygenated blood flows from lungs via pulmonary

Veins--- left atrium--- bicuspid valve--- left ventricle--- aortic semilunar valve--- aorta --- general circulation (to deliver oxygen)


Electrical conduction system
Electrical conduction system:

specialized cardiac muscle cells that carry impulses throughout the heart musculature, signaling the chambers to contract in the proper sequence

(Explanation in next slides)


Control of Heart Contractions

SA (sinoatrial) NODE = PACEMAKER

• Located in right atrium

• SA node sends out electrical impulse

• Impulse spreads over atria, making them

contract

• Travels to AV Node

AV (atrioventricular) NODE

• Conducting cell group between atria and

ventricle

• Carries impulse to bundle of His

BUNDLE OF HIS

• Conducting fibers in septum

• Divides into R and L branches to network of

branches in ventricles (Purkinje fibers)

PURKINJE FIBERS

• Impulse shoots along Purkinje fibers causing

ventricles to contract


Flow through the heart
Flow Through the Heart

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7XaftdE_h60


Heart Contraction

SA Node

Sinalarterial node

 “Pacemaker”

AV Node

Atrioventricular node

Allows impulse to cross

into ventricles

Purkinje Fibers

Bundle of His

Bundle Branches


Conduction system
Conduction system

  • SA node (sinoatrial)

    • In wall of RA

    • Sets basic rate: 70-80

    • Is the normal pacemaker

  • Impulse from SA to atria

  • Impulse also to AV node via internodal pathway

  • AV node

    • In interatrial septum


Conduction continued
Conduction continued

  • SA node through AV bundle (bundle of His)

    • Into interventricular septum

    • Divides

      R and L bundle branches

      become subendocardial

      branches (“Purkinje

      fibers”)

  • Contraction begins

    at apex


Heart contraction flow chart
Heart Contraction Flow Chart

SA Node fires

Impulse spreads across atria

Atria contract (lub)

Blood is pumped to the ventricles

AV Node receives impulse from SA Node

Impulse passes through bundle of His

Impulse passes through Purkinje fibers

Ventricles contract (dub)

Blood is pumped into the lungs and out to the body



Ekg measures heart electricity
EKG→ measures heart electricity

P Wave→ Atria contract & Depolarize

PQ Interval→ Impulse is passing through the bundle of His to the Purkinje fibers

QRS Wave→ Ventricles depolarize and contract

T Wave→ Ventricles repolarize


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