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How & why do Koreans and Japanese shift styles to plain forms? : In a spoken discourse genre of TV cooking programs. Heeyeong JUNG The University of Hawaii at Manoa. Introduction. Plain form. Honorific form. formal setting older age higher position. informal setting younger age

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How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

How & why do Koreans and

Japanese shift styles to plain forms?

: In a spoken discourse genre of TV cooking programs

Heeyeong JUNG

The University of Hawaii at Manoa


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

Introduction

Plain form

Honorific form

formal setting

older age

higher position

informal setting

younger age

lower position

vs

However, the intermixed usage of different speech styles

appears in real discourse data!!

How does style choice appears in the same spoken

discourse genre in Korean & Japanese?


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

style shifting studies in KOR

~습니다 ~어/아요~다

(-) boundary

(+) boundary

Strauss & Eun

formal public

speech

informal

everyday speech

neutral

formal writing

Lee, H -S

stance marker

suggestion, offer

Kim, K -H

reflex

perception of stimulus

Iwasaki, S

reactive token

attention getter

self repair

stance marker

Noh, G


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

style shifting studies in JPN

masu form plain form

polite/formal

speech level marker

non-polite/informal

speech level marker

(+) distance (empathy)

(-) distance (empathy)

Ikuta

low conscious of ‘thou’

high conscious of ‘thou’

Maynard

self-presentation

lack of self-presentation

cook


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

Research Qs

Q1) What are discourse functions and motivations of the shifting to the plain forms shown in TV

cooking shows?

Q2) Are there any function differences & similarities in style shifting in Korean and Japanese?


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

Data


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

Participant roles

HOST CHEF

  • assist chef

  • taste food items

  • report info

  • clarify info

  • cook food

  • provide knowledge

  • (technique, procedure)


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

Discourse functions

HOST CHEF

assessment

on taste/shapes

  • assist chef

  • taste food items

  • report info

  • clarify info

  • cook food

  • provide knowledge

  • (technique, procedure)

assessment on shapes, knowledge

summarizing

checking

understanding

Soliloquy remarks

Soliloquy remarks


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

KOR: H’s summarizing

쇠고기 말이 편채

Summarizing with low tone


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

JPN: H’s summarizing

  • 362 H: fukin ga koko ni arimasu jaa kore osaete okimasu ne

  • ‘There is a dish towel here. Let me hold (the container)’ 

  • 363 C: totte itadakimashite konomama samashite itadakimasu

  • ‘Pull(it)out, cool down this way’

  • ((pulls out the cake from the container))

  • 364H: konomama samasu konomama iretamama da to jooki ga de

  • ‘Cool down this way, there comes moisture if (you) leave the cake

  • (in the container)’

  • C: de ano suijooki ga koko ni tamarimasu node beechatto

  • shimaimasu node

  • ‘Moisture remains and (the cake) gets soggy.’

  • H: dashita jootai de samasu to iu

  • ‘(We should) cool down outside’

  • 367 C: hai

Summarizing with low tone


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

KOR: Providing knowledge

파인애플 티라미수

Providing

C’s professional

knowledge

Line 320:

Agreement/realization


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

JPN: Providing knowledge

  • 12 H: de konna jootai ni naru n desu yo ne ima kara itadaitte mitara ne hai

  • ‘Then, (it) becomes like this condition if (I) see now.’

  • 13 C: kore wa uragoshishita mon desu yo ne

  • ‘This is the one (I) put through with a sieve.’

  • 14 H: hai

  • 15C: koo yuu huu ni nameraka ni naru

  • ‘(It) becomes smoother like this.’

  • H: ee ee ee ato ne soo ka uragoshi o suru to iu no wa tada nameraka ni suru n jaa nakute

  • ‘I see, oh! The straining is not only for making (it) smoother.’

  • 17 ano aji ga koo ittaikan

  • ‘But also for getting one harmonizing (taste)’

  • C: soo choomiryoo no ne baransu o ne totte kureru n desu yo ne

  • ‘Right, the condiment can take a balance in (taste).’

  • 19 H: a:: hee

  •  ‘Oh!!’

Providing knowledge

with authority

(low tone)

Line 16:

Agreement/realization


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

KOR: Assessment on taste

시래기 갈비 전골

Assessment

on taste

Line 758:

Changing style to ~어/아요


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

JPN: Assessment on taste

  • 4 C: atsui kara yakedo shinai yoo ni ki o tsukete

  • ‘(You should) be careful not to be burned because (it) is hot. 

  • H: hai arigatoo gozaimasu jaa tattamama shitsuree itashimasu

  • dewa dewa

  • ‘Yes, thanks you. I am sorry to eat standing.’

  • 6 doo deshoo oishii: tsubutsubu shokkan ga ii desu ne

  • ‘How would (the taste) be like? (It) is delicious! Its texture is so good.’

  • 7 C: soo desu ne hai

  • ‘That’s right, yes.’

  • 8 H: oishii desu

  • ‘(It) is delicious.’

Assessment

on taste

Line 8:

Changing style to ~desu


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

KOR: Assessment on actions

Line 552, 624:

comes with interjection or intensifier

시래기 갈비 전골

Assessment

on technique/knowledge

깻잎만두


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

JPN: H’s assessment on shape

  • 1 H: jaa donna oryoori ni naru no ka

  • ‘Well, what kind of dish do we cook today?’

  • 2 C: hai

  • 3 H: mazu goranitadakimashoo a::: mitame ga koo ne kireeda shi

  • oishisoo

  • ‘First, let’s take a look. Oh! (Sushi balls) look very nice and look delicious.’

  • 4 C: kuromai to wa itte mo pinku iro deshoo

  • ‘(It) is called black rice, but (it) is actually pink in color.’

  • H: ee soo pinku desu yo ne

  • ‘Yes, that’s right. It is pink.’

comes with

interjection

(affect key)

Assessment

on shape


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

JPN: C’s assessment on shape

  • 4 H: jaa koo guruguru to koo maki nagara katachi o koo todonoe nagara ne

  • ‘Well, (I am) turning this while making the shape right’

  • 5 C: soo desu ne temarizushi nande ne

  • ‘That’s right. (it) is a ball sushi.’

  • H: nan ka temarizushi to iu ka teruteruboozuzushi mitaina

  • ‘(It) looks like ‘teruteruboozu(fine weather priest) sushi rather than a ball sushi.’

  • C ((laughter))

  • H: katachi ni narimashita ga konna n de ikagadeshoo ka saa

  • ‘(It) became like this. How do you like this?’

  • ((takes off the wrap))

  • C: ((pick it up with chopsticks))hai yoku dekimashita

  • ‘Yes, (you) did a good job.’

  • H: hai arigatoo gozaimasu

  • 11 C: hora kiree

  • ‘Look, it looks nice.’

  • H: hontoo un hee

  • ‘Oh really!’

Line 6~7:

H’s joke/C’s laugher

brings ‘intimacy’

Assessment

on looks


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

KOR: Soliloquy remark

깻잎만두

H’s soliloquy

remark


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

JPN: Soliloquy remark

H’s soliloquy

remark

Line 900:

Prefacing interjection


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

KOR: quoted speech

bare reported

speech


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

Summary

HOST CHEF

  • summarizing

  • assessment on taste

  • soliloquy remark

  • providing professional

  • knowledge

  • assessment on shape

  • soliloquy remark

assessment

on technique or

knowledge

soliloquy remark prefacing

the interjection like ‘a’

bare quoted

speech


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

Conclusion

  • Style shifting to plain forms occurs to both chef

  • and host when mainly chef provides professional

  • knowledge while host summarizing in Kor./Jap.

  • Discourse functions of the shifting is closely

  • related to distinctive roles in conversations.

  • Low tone is realized with plain form shifting in both chef’s providing knowledge & host’s summarizing.


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

Further studies

  • Looking at more episodes in consideration of

  • gender, age differences


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

Selected references

  • Cook, H.M. (1998). Situational Meanings of Japanese Social Deixis: The Mixed Use of the Masu and Plain Forms, Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 8(l), 87-110.

  • Cook, H.M. (2008). Style shifts in Japanese academic consultations. In K. Jones and T. Ono (eds), Style shifting in Japanese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 9-38.

  • Ikuta, S. (1983). Speech level shift and conversational strategy in Japanese discourse. Language Sciences, 5, 37-53

  • Ikuta, S. (2008). Speech style shift as an interactional discourse strategy: The use and non-use of desu/-masu in Japanese conversational interview. In K. Jones and T. Ono (eds.), Style shifting in Japanese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 71-90.

  • Iwasaki, S. (2006). The structure of internal state expressions in Japanese and Korean. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, 14, 331-342.

  • Kim, K.-H. (2004). A conversation analysis of Korean sentence-ending modal suffixes –ney, -kwun(a), and –ta:Noticing as a social action. Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea, 12(1), 1-35.

  • Lee, H.S. (1991). Tense, aspect, and modality: A discourse-progmatic analysis of verbal affixes in Korean from a typological perspective. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California.

  • Maynard, S. (1991). Pragmatics of discourse modality: a case of da and desu/masu forms in Japanese. Journal of Pragmatics, 15, 551-582.

  • Maynard, S. (2008). Playing with multiple voices: Emotivity and creativity in Japanese style mixture. In K. Jones and T. Ono (eds.), Style shifting in Japanese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 91-130.

  • Noh, J. (2008). A usage-based account on the Korean suffix –ta in spoken discourse. Korean Linguistics, 14, 203-222.

  • Strauss, S., Eun, J.O. (2005). Indexicality and honorific speech level choice in Korean. Linguistics, 43(3), 611-651.


How why do koreans and japanese shift styles to plain forms

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