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Chapter 13 The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. B U D D H I S M. Shinto. The indigenous Japanese Shinto view of the natural and the supernatural remained central to Japanese cultural development. Japanese believed in the kami, nature spirits, of Japan.

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B

U

D

D

H

I

S

M


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Shinto

  • The indigenous Japanese Shinto view of the natural and the supernatural remained central to Japanese cultural development. Japanese believed in the kami, nature spirits, of Japan


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Taika Reforms

  • The central purpose of the Taika reforms was to remake the Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor.

  • “Son of Heaven” was added to the Japan’s rulers name

  • The imperial administration was revamped along Chinese lines to create a Chinese style bureaucracy.

  • Peasant conscript army




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Heian Era (hey-on)

  • The power of the aristocratic families to build up rural estates was fully restored

  • Emperor gave up scheme to build a peasant conscript army

  • Local militias were established in the rural areas.


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Court Life

  • A closed world of luxury and strict codes of polite behavior

  • Pursuit of beauty and social interaction

  • The Tale of Genji- Lady Murasaki- the first novel in any language


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The role of women at the court at Heian

  • to be as poised and cultured as men

  • Played a creative role in Japanese productions- writing poems, playing the flute or stringed instruments, and in court intrigue.


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Lady Murasaaki

973-1025

Fujiwara

Family

***

The first novel in any language

Tale of Genji


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The Fujiwara Family

While the emperor and his court were admiring the plum blossoms, the Fujiwara shaped imperial policy

They increased the number of peasants under their control as they competed in this with the Buddhist.



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Heian Japan was the high point of Japanese aristocratic culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.


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The Rise of the Provincial Warrior elites culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.during the tenth century

The Bushi were the warrior leaders in the tenth century in Japan who controlled provincial areas and ruled from small fortresses in the countryside.


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Bushi Fortresses culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.


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The Samurai culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.

  • Mounted troops who owed loyalty to the bushi.

  • Devoted their lives to hunting, riding, archery practice and other activities that sharpened their martial skills.

  • Until the 12th century, main weapon was the longbow and carried straight swords


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The Samurai, Heroic Warfare culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.

  • From the 12th century on, Samurai relied on superbly forged curved steel swords

  • Battles increasingly hinged upon duels of great champions


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Seppuku culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.

From the 12th century onward, Japan was moving toward a feudal order that was remarkably similar to that developing in western Europe during this same postclassical period.


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The Peasantry culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.

  • The rise of the Samurai frustrated all hopes of creating a free peasantry.

  • In the next centuries the Japanese peasants were reduced to serfs.


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Pure Land Sect culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.


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The Era of Warlords: the11th & 12th centuries culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.

  • Armed bands roamed the countryside and the streets of the capital

  • Rampant crime & civil strife

  • From the 12th century onward, Japanese history dominated by civil wars

  • Chinese influence declined

  • Artisan class,

  • despite strife, produced sublime creations in ceramics, landscape architecture, and religious poetry


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Break with China culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.

  • The emperor no longer held to the pretense of a “Mandate from Heaven”

  • The bureaucracy and centralized power and the emergence of a scholar-gentry did not materialize.

  • Buddhism became a distinctly Japanese religion.

  • By 838 Japan discontinued its embassies to the Tang Court

  • Merchants still made the trip to China


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Bakufu culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.

  • Between 1180 and 1185 the struggle between the two major provincial families, the Taira and the Minamoto, were decided in the Gempei Wars.

  • Bakufu (military government at Kamakura)

  • In 1185 the Minamoto defeated the Taira and established the bakufu or military government

  • The feudal age begins in 1185 with the victory of the Minamoto


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Kamakura culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.

  • The emperor and his court were preserved

  • Real power rested with the Minamoto and their samurai retainers.

  • Yoritomo was the leader of the victorous Minamoto


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Shogun culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.

  • The title given to the military leader of the bakufu at Kamakura


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The Hojo Family culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.

  • The Death of Yoritomo


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The Hojo Family culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.

  • manipulated the Minamoto shoguns

  • The Minamoto shoguns claimed to rule in the name of the emperor at Kyoto


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Ashikaga Shogunate culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.

  • Ashikaga Takuaji led a revolt of the bushi that overthrow the Kamakura regime and established the Ashikaga Shogunate, 1336-1573

  • Flight of the emperor to Yoshino


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Civil War culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.

  • Full-scale civil war raged from 1467 to 1477.

  • Koyoto was reduced to rubble

  • Japan was divided into nearly three hundred little kingdoms, whose warloards were called Daimyosrather than bushi.


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Toward Barbarism? Military Division and Social Change culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.

  • In the 15th and 16th centuries the chivalrous qualities of the bushi deteriorated

  • Despite chaos and suffering of peasant there was economic and cultural growth

  • New crops-soybeans


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Zen Buddhism culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.


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Influence of Zen Buddhism culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.



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Women in daimyo, warrior elite families architectural

  • By the 14th and 15th centuries, the trend in daimyo families was toward primogeniture

  • Women of the elite classes who no longer shared in the division of the family estate.

  • Women became defenseless appendages of warrior husbands

  • Japanese women of all classes lost the role of celebrant in religious ceremonies


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Japan Europe architectural


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Japan Europe architectural


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