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Chapter 13 The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. B U D D H I S M. Shinto. The indigenous Japanese Shinto view of the natural and the supernatural remained central to Japanese cultural development. Japanese believed in the kami, nature spirits, of Japan.

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slide2

B

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D

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S

M

shinto
Shinto
  • The indigenous Japanese Shinto view of the natural and the supernatural remained central to Japanese cultural development. Japanese believed in the kami, nature spirits, of Japan
slide4

Taika (645-710)

  • Nara (710-784)
  • Heian (794-857)
taika reforms
Taika Reforms
  • The central purpose of the Taika reforms was to remake the Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor.
  • “Son of Heaven” was added to the Japan’s rulers name
  • The imperial administration was revamped along Chinese lines to create a Chinese style bureaucracy.
  • Peasant conscript army
slide9

In the 8th century the imperial family moved from

  • Nara to Heian, later called Kyoto.
heian era hey on
Heian Era (hey-on)
  • The power of the aristocratic families to build up rural estates was fully restored
  • Emperor gave up scheme to build a peasant conscript army
  • Local militias were established in the rural areas.
court life
Court Life
  • A closed world of luxury and strict codes of polite behavior
  • Pursuit of beauty and social interaction
  • The Tale of Genji- Lady Murasaki- the first novel in any language
the role of women at the court at heian
The role of women at the court at Heian
  • to be as poised and cultured as men
  • Played a creative role in Japanese productions- writing poems, playing the flute or stringed instruments, and in court intrigue.
tale of genji

Lady Murasaaki

973-1025

Fujiwara

Family

***

The first novel in any language

Tale of Genji
the fujiwara family
The Fujiwara Family

While the emperor and his court were admiring the plum blossoms, the Fujiwara shaped imperial policy

They increased the number of peasants under their control as they competed in this with the Buddhist.

heian japan was the high point of japanese aristocratic culture a golden age of peace and harmony
Heian Japan was the high point of Japanese aristocratic culture, a golden age of peace and harmony.
the rise of the provincial warrior elites during the tenth century
The Rise of the Provincial Warrior elites during the tenth century

The Bushi were the warrior leaders in the tenth century in Japan who controlled provincial areas and ruled from small fortresses in the countryside.

the samurai
The Samurai
  • Mounted troops who owed loyalty to the bushi.
  • Devoted their lives to hunting, riding, archery practice and other activities that sharpened their martial skills.
  • Until the 12th century, main weapon was the longbow and carried straight swords
the samurai heroic warfare
The Samurai, Heroic Warfare
  • From the 12th century on, Samurai relied on superbly forged curved steel swords
  • Battles increasingly hinged upon duels of great champions
seppuku
Seppuku

From the 12th century onward, Japan was moving toward a feudal order that was remarkably similar to that developing in western Europe during this same postclassical period.

the peasantry
The Peasantry
  • The rise of the Samurai frustrated all hopes of creating a free peasantry.
  • In the next centuries the Japanese peasants were reduced to serfs.
the era of warlords the11th 12th centuries
The Era of Warlords: the11th & 12th centuries
  • Armed bands roamed the countryside and the streets of the capital
  • Rampant crime & civil strife
  • From the 12th century onward, Japanese history dominated by civil wars
  • Chinese influence declined
  • Artisan class,
  • despite strife, produced sublime creations in ceramics, landscape architecture, and religious poetry
break with china
Break with China
  • The emperor no longer held to the pretense of a “Mandate from Heaven”
  • The bureaucracy and centralized power and the emergence of a scholar-gentry did not materialize.
  • Buddhism became a distinctly Japanese religion.
  • By 838 Japan discontinued its embassies to the Tang Court
  • Merchants still made the trip to China
bakufu
Bakufu
  • Between 1180 and 1185 the struggle between the two major provincial families, the Taira and the Minamoto, were decided in the Gempei Wars.
  • Bakufu (military government at Kamakura)
  • In 1185 the Minamoto defeated the Taira and established the bakufu or military government
  • The feudal age begins in 1185 with the victory of the Minamoto
kamakura
Kamakura
  • The emperor and his court were preserved
  • Real power rested with the Minamoto and their samurai retainers.
  • Yoritomo was the leader of the victorous Minamoto
shogun
Shogun
  • The title given to the military leader of the bakufu at Kamakura
the hojo family
The Hojo Family
  • The Death of Yoritomo
the hojo family33
The Hojo Family
  • manipulated the Minamoto shoguns
  • The Minamoto shoguns claimed to rule in the name of the emperor at Kyoto
ashikaga shogunate
Ashikaga Shogunate
  • Ashikaga Takuaji led a revolt of the bushi that overthrow the Kamakura regime and established the Ashikaga Shogunate, 1336-1573
  • Flight of the emperor to Yoshino
civil war
Civil War
  • Full-scale civil war raged from 1467 to 1477.
  • Koyoto was reduced to rubble
  • Japan was divided into nearly three hundred little kingdoms, whose warloards were called Daimyosrather than bushi.
toward barbarism military division and social change
Toward Barbarism? Military Division and Social Change
  • In the 15th and 16th centuries the chivalrous qualities of the bushi deteriorated
  • Despite chaos and suffering of peasant there was economic and cultural growth
  • New crops-soybeans
women in daimyo warrior elite families
Women in daimyo, warrior elite families
  • By the 14th and 15th centuries, the trend in daimyo families was toward primogeniture
  • Women of the elite classes who no longer shared in the division of the family estate.
  • Women became defenseless appendages of warrior husbands
  • Japanese women of all classes lost the role of celebrant in religious ceremonies
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