Cell structure and function
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Cell Structure and Function. Cell Theory. All living organisms are made of cells . Cells are small aqueous solution (cytoplasm) organelles ( subcellular structures) “ subunit of life !” Cells are of different size and shape

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Cell theory
Cell Theory

  • All living organisms are made of cells.

  • Cells are small

  • aqueous solution (cytoplasm)

  • organelles (subcellularstructures) “subunit of life!”

  • Cells are of different size and shape

  • Size and shape can be related to its specific function.

  • Called specialized Cells

What’s inside the cell?

Are there different types of cells?

From prokaryote to eukaryote
From Prokaryote to Eukaryote

  • All living thingscomefrom a single cell born 3,500 million years ago (mya)

    • Simple organic molecules likely formed billions of years ago

  • A prokaryote “ate” another prokaryote

  • The inner prokaryote helped the outer prokaryote

  • They lived happily ever after

Primordial Cell

How did organelles get into simple cells?

Endosymbiotic Theory

Prokaryotic cells examples
Prokaryotic CellsExamples?

  • “Before membrane or nucleus”

  • NO Nucleus

  • Only ribosomes, DNA, and cytoplasm inside

  • Extremely Simple


Eukaryotic cells

  • “TRUE membrane or nucleus”

  • Nucleus and membrane bound organelles PRESENT

  • DNA in nucleus

  • Extremely COMPLEX

Eukaryotic Cells


Plants, animals, and Fungi

Unicellular vs multicellular organisms
Unicellular vs. Multicellular Organisms

  • Why unicellular?

    • Why multicellular?

  • Simplicity

  • Quick Reproduction (Asexual)

  • No need for circulatory system

  • Complex

  • Specialized

  • Sexual Reproduction= genetic differences

  • Need a circulatory system to get nutrients

Why don t we have enormous unicellular organisms wondering around walmart
Why don’t we have enormous unicellular organisms wondering around Walmart?

  • It takes to long to get nutrients throughout the cell


  • Let’s see how the surface to volume ratio affects nutrient supply to the cell.

Outside covers plasma cell membrane cell wall
Outside around CoversPlasma/cell MembraneCell Wall

  • Flexible membrane

  • Phospholipidbilayer

  • Controls what goes in and comes out

  • All Cells!

  • Rigid structure made of cellulose (carbohydrate) holds plants up

  • Extra Protection

  • Plant and bacterial cells (no animals)

Inner structures nuclear envelope nucleus nucleolus

  • The around outside covering of the nucleus

  • Controls all cell activities

  • Hold all genetic information (DNA)

  • ”Brain of the cell”

  • Inside the nucleus

  • makes ribosomes and nucleic acids for the nucleus

Inner structuresNuclear EnvelopeNucleusNucleolus


Inner Structures around


  • Make proteins!

    • Assembled by their instructions in DNA

  • “Ribs” are delicious protein


Inner Structures around


  • Clear jelly-like fluid inside of a cell.

  • Holds organelles in place

  • Multiple chemical reactions take place here.

  • Kept out of

    nucleus by

    nuclear envelope.

Endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic around Reticulum

  • Folded membrane in the cytoplasm

  • Has large surface area for more chemical reactions.

  • Creates containment vesicles

  • Studded with ribosomes

  • Creates Proteins

Smooth ER

Rough ER

Golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus around

  • Closely stacked, flattened membrane sacs

  • Receive newly made proteins and lipids from the ER

  • sendsboth to the plasma membrane and other organelles throughout the cell.

Vacuole around

  • Stores food, enzymes, and other materials needed by a cell.

    • A small percentage of vacuoles store waste products.

    • Vacuoles in plants cells are huge!

      • Usually only one.

    • Animal cells can have many small vacuoles.

Lysosomes around

  • Contain digestive enzymes.

  • Digest excess or worn out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria

  • Their membrane prevents harmful enzymes from pouring into the cytoplasm of the cell.

  • “Everyone wants to get rid of lyce”

Mitochondria around

  • food molecules are broken down (glucose) to produce energy.

    • Shaped like tiny sausages.

    • Have their own DNA/Ribosomes

    • Inner membrane forms long, narrow folds called cristae.

Chloroplasts around

  • Photosynthesis takes place here

  • Transforms light energy into chemicals to produce food

  • In plants only!

Contain Chlorophyll

  • greenpigment that traps light energy

  • gives plants their green color.

  • In the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast.

  • **What gives plants their green color**

Centriole around

  • Thick part of the cell membrane where spindles attach

  • Helps in cell reproduction

  • Helps in cell division

Structures for support cytoskeleton made of
Structures for around SupportCytoskeletonmade of…

  • provide support for organelles and helps the cell maintain its shape.

    • Microtubules: Thin, hollow cylinders of protein.

    • Microfilaments: Thin, solid protein fibers.

Structures for movement
Structures for Movement around

  • “Hair-like projections” that beat together to create movement

  • whip-like tail for motion

    • major method of locomotion in unicellular organisms.