Chapter 2 - Map Projection. 9-1-2004 Week 1. Introduction. Same coordinate system is used on a same “ View ” of ArcView or same “ Data Frame ” in ArcMap. Projection - converting digital map from longitude/latitude to two-dimension coordinate system.
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b=semiminor axis (polar radius)
f = (a-b)/a - flattening
1/298.26 for GRS1980, and 1/294.98 for Clarke 1866
a = semimajor axis (equatorial radius)
The geoid bulges at the North Pole and is depressed at the South Pole
Simple Case reality
source of data: Dent, 1999