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Chapter 12: Oceans and the Environment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 12: Oceans and the Environment. Big Question: Can We Learn to Manage the Oceans’ Resources?. World Fish Production. The Decline of Fish Populations. Death of a Fishery. Case Study: Chesapeake Bay- A fishery disaster in the U.S. Other Problems. Highly polluted farm runoff.

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Chapter 12: Oceans and the Environment

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Chapter 12: Oceans and the Environment

Big Question:

Can We Learn to Manage the Oceans’ Resources?

World Fish Production

The Decline of Fish Populations

Death of a Fishery

Case Study: Chesapeake Bay- A fishery disaster in the U.S.

Other Problems

Highly polluted farm runoff.

Scientific theory remains inadequate

An Ocean Is Many Habitatsand Ecosystems

Where Are the Fish?

Most fish we eat come from continental shelves.

Salmon, Anchovies and Upwellings

Managing ocean fisheries is difficult.

Salmon illustrate the problems of managing ocean fisheries. Many factors influence their birth and death rates.

Upwelling Ocean Currents

Upwelling ocean currents affect smaller fish that salmon eat.

They bring nutrients, such as phosphorus, from deep ocean sediments and waters.

Coral Reefs: A Special Problem

Reefs are restricted to warm waters and therefore low latitudes.

Coral Reefs at Risk

We love them to death. More than half of the remaining coral reefs are considered at risk.

We Pollute the Oceans

Our wastes end up in the oceans.

Marine Pollution

Marine pollution affects oceanic life in a variety of ways

Plastics are dumped into oceans, float with ocean currents, and accumulate in convergent currents (i.e. near the northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

Making Ocean Fisheries Sustainable

Problem: much of the open ocean is a “commons.”

Managing fisheries: there are four options:

1. Establish a total catch quota.

2. Issue a restricted number of licenses.

3. Tax fish brought in, or the effort.

4. Allocate fishing transfer/selling rights.

Marine Sanctuaries

Sanctuaries can be invaluable in helping populations recover.

Aquaculture and Mariculture

Fish produced by Aquaculture and Mari (marine) culture

Conservation of Whales andOther Marine Mammals

Dolphins and Other Small Whales

Source: Wikipedia

Chapter 12: Oceans and the Environment

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