Chapter 12: Oceans and the Environment. Big Question: Can We Learn to Manage the Oceans’ Resources?. World Fish Production. The Decline of Fish Populations. Death of a Fishery. Case Study: Chesapeake Bay- A fishery disaster in the U.S. Other Problems. Highly polluted farm runoff.
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Can We Learn to Manage the Oceans’ Resources?
Case Study: Chesapeake Bay- A fishery disaster in the U.S.
Highly polluted farm runoff.
Scientific theory remains inadequate
Most fish we eat come from continental shelves.
Managing ocean fisheries is difficult.
Salmon illustrate the problems of managing ocean fisheries. Many factors influence their birth and death rates.
Upwelling ocean currents affect smaller fish that salmon eat.
They bring nutrients, such as phosphorus, from deep ocean sediments and waters.
Reefs are restricted to warm waters and therefore low latitudes.
We love them to death. More than half of the remaining coral reefs are considered at risk.
Our wastes end up in the oceans.
Marine pollution affects oceanic life in a variety of ways
Plastics are dumped into oceans, float with ocean currents, and accumulate in convergent currents (i.e. near the northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
Problem: much of the open ocean is a “commons.”
Managing fisheries: there are four options:
1. Establish a total catch quota.
2. Issue a restricted number of licenses.
3. Tax fish brought in, or the effort.
4. Allocate fishing transfer/selling rights.
Sanctuaries can be invaluable in helping populations recover.
Fish produced by Aquaculture and Mari (marine) culture