Lecture Outlines Chapter 17 Environment: The Science behind the Stories 4th Edition Withgott/Brennan. The Earth’s atmosphere Weather, climate, and atmospheric conditions Outdoor pollution and solutions Stratospheric ozone depletion Acidic deposition and consequences
Environment:The Science behind the Stories
The Earth’s atmosphere
Weather, climate, and atmospheric conditions
Outdoor pollution and solutions
Stratospheric ozone depletion
Acidic deposition and consequences
Indoor air pollution and solutions
Front = the boundary between air masses that differ in temperature, moisture, and density
Warm front =boundary where warm, moist air replaces colder, drier air
Cold front = where colder, drier air displaces warmer, moister air
Warm fronts produce light rain
Cold fronts produce thunderstorms
Volcanoes are one source of natural air pollution, as shown by the Mount Saint Helens eruption in 1980
In 1997, unprecedented forest fires sickened 20 million and caused a plane to crash
Many Americans live in areas with unhealthy levels of criteria pollutants
In 2008, the U.S. emitted 123 million tons of the six monitored pollutants
The average U.S. driver emits 6 metric tons of CO2/yr as well as other pollutants!
Non-cancerous respiratory ailments
Nationwide cancer risks
Smog in Beijing surrounds an Olympic stadium
More people own cars
Smog in Donora killed 21 people and sickened 6,000
High levels of NO2cause photochemical smog to form a brown haze over cities
Creation of industrial and photochemical smog
One chlorine atom can destroy 100,000 ozone molecules
International agreements reduced ozone-depleting substances
The hole in the ozone has stopped growing
Many regions of acidification are downwind of major sources of pollution
Indoor air pollution =in workplaces, schools, and homes
Health effects are greater than from outdoor pollution
The average U.S. citizen spends 90% of the time indoors
Exposed to synthetic materials that have not been comprehensively tested
Being environmentally prudent can make it worse
To reduce heat loss and improve efficiency, ventilation systems were sealed off
Windows do not open, trapping pollutants inside
Stems from burning wood, charcoal, dung, crop wastes with little to no ventilation
Fuel burning pollution causes 1.6 million deaths/year
Soot and carbon monoxide
Pneumonia, bronchitis, lung cancer, allergies, cataracts, asthma, heart disease, etc.
The most dangerous indoor pollutants in developed nations
Secondhand smoke from cigarettes is very dangerous
Contains over 4,000 chemical compounds
Causes eye, nose, and throat irritation
Smoking has declined in developed nations
Radon causes 21,000 deaths a year in the U.S.
A radioactive gas resulting from natural decay of rock, soil, or water that can seep into buildings
New homes are being built that are radon resistant
The most diverse group of indoor air pollutants
Released by everything from plastics and oils to perfumes and paints
Most VOCs are released in very small amounts
Unclear health implications due to low concentrations
Formaldehyde leaking from pressed wood and insulation irritates mucous membranes and induces skin allergies
Pesticides seep through floors and walls
Are brought in on shoe soles
Dust mites and animal dander worsen asthma
Fungi, mold, mildew, airborne bacteria cause allergies, asthma, other respiratory ailments, and diseases
Building-related illness = a sickness produced by indoor pollution
Sick building syndrome = a sickness produced by indoor pollution with general and nonspecific symptoms
Reduced by using low-toxicity building materials and good ventilation
In developed countries:
Use low-toxicity materials, limit use of plastics and treated wood, monitor air quality, keep rooms clean
Provide adequate ventilation
Limit exposure to known toxicants
Test homes and offices and use CO detectors
In developing countries:
Dry wood before burning
Use less-polluting fuels (natural gas)
The major component of Earth’s atmosphere is:
Ozone in the _________ is a pollutant, but in the ______ is vital for life.
With convective circulation:
If you were on a sailing ship going from the United States to Europe, you would want to be in the area of the _____.
The Clean Air Act does all of the following, EXCEPT:
Which criteria pollutant is highly reactive, foul smelling, and has a reddish brown color?
Why is the Montreal Protocol considered our greatest environmental success story?
Think of a major city near you. Do you think drivers should have to pay to drive downtown?
Should the government be able to force industries to put pollution-control devices on their factories?
What does this graph show about the stratosphere?
Which conclusion can you draw from this graph?