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FIRST AID BASICS. Everyone should know how to:. 1. Recognize injuries 2. Control bleeding 3. Know how to care for burns 4. Care for muscle, bone and joint injuries 5. Care for sudden illnesses. EMERGENCY ACTION STEPS . CHECK CALL CARE. CHECK THE SCENE. Is the scene safe?

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everyone should know how to
Everyone should know how to:
  • 1. Recognize injuries
  • 2. Control bleeding
  • 3. Know how to care for burns
  • 4. Care for muscle, bone and joint injuries
  • 5. Care for sudden illnesses
check the scene
  • Is the scene safe?
  • What happened?
  • How many people are injured?
  • Are there bystanders who can help?
note obtain consent
NOTE: Obtain Consent
  • From all mentally competent, conscious adult victims
  • Parent or guardian of minors or emotionally disturbed victims
  • If not available, first aid care must be given without consent.
  • If a victim is unconscious, badly injured or so ill that he/she cannot respond, consent is implied.
call 911 in the following circumstances
CALL 911 In the Following Circumstances
  • The victim is unconscious
  • Has trouble breathing
  • Has chest pain or pressure
  • Is bleeding severely
  • Has severe pain in the abdomen
  • Is vomiting or passing blood
  • Has seizures, a severe headache, or slurred speech
  • Appears to have been poisoned
  • Has injuries to the head, neck or back
  • Has possibly broken bones
  • Victim cannot be moved easily
when calling 911 have the following information ready
When calling 911, have the following information ready
  • Location of the emergency with cross-streets
  • Phone number from which you are calling.
  • What happened?
  • How many people are involved?
  • What is being done?
care for the victim
  • Injuries are one of our nation\'s most important health problems. Most of us will have a significant injury at some time in our lives. Many injuries are preventable.
  • The five leading causes of injuries are:
    • Motor-vehicle accidents,
    • Falls, Poisonings,
    • Drowning,
    • Choking.
bloody nose10
  • Bloody noses are not usually painful.
  • They can be caused from:
    • an injury
    • high blood pressure
    • altitude changes
first aid treatment
First Aid Treatment
  • Encourage them to breathe through their mouth.
  • Have victim sit dawn and lean forward with chin toward chest.
  • Pinch the nostrils together firmly for a full 15 minutes.
  • If bleeding continues, apply ice pack to bridge of nose.
  • Put pressure in the upper lip just below the nose.
  • If the bleeding continues after another 15 minutes, repeat steps one more time.
  • If there is still bleeding after 45 minutes, seek medical help.
how to make a cold compress
How to Make a Cold Compress
  • Put ice in a zip-lock plastic bag
  • Soak clean hand towel in cool water
  • Wring out the towel
  • Wrap the towel around the ice bag
  • Apply to area to reduce swelling, pain, or itchiness
  • Exposure to heat
  • Chemicals
  • Electricity
  • Radiation
critical burns
Critical Burns
  • Trouble breathing
  • Covers more than one body part
  • Covers the eyes
  • On genitals
  • Victim is elderly
  • For critical burns, call 911
first aid treatment16
First Aid Treatment
  • Cool the burn immediately by immersing it in cold (not ice) water or placing it cold running water for at least 10 minutes.
  • A clean, cold, wet towel will reduce the pain.
  • For a minor mouth burn, victim can suck on ice.
for severe burns
For Severe Burns
  • Do not remove pieces of cloth that stick to the burn.
  • Do not try to clean the burn.
  • Remove jewelry distal to the wound (tell the victim where you put the jewelry!).
  • Cover the burn with dry, sterile, non-adhesive dressing (separate toes and fingers).
take steps to prevent shock
Take Steps to Prevent Shock
  • Lay the victim flat
  • Elevate feet 12 inches
  • Maintain normal body temperature
  • Monitor breathing, circulation, and bleeding until help arrives.
  • If victim can cough or talk at all, leave them alone (stay close and encourage coughing)
  • If their hands are at their throat and they cannot speak, call 911 and do abdominal thrusts.
first aid treatment adult or child over 1 year old
First Aid Treatment (Adult or child over 1 year old)
  • Call 911
  • Identify yourself and ask them if you can help (get consent)
  • Do not let a coughing person go away by themselves to the bathroom!
  • When doing abdomina1 thrusts, stand behind the victim
  • Wrap your arms around the victim\'s waist
abdominal thrust problems
Abdominal Thrust Problems
  • If too big (obese or pregnant), wrap arms under their armpits and do chest thrusts
  • If they are too tall, have them kneel.
  • If they are very short (or a child), you should do the kneeling.
abdominal thrusts
Abdominal Thrusts
  • Make a fist. Place the thumb side of your fist in the middle of victim’s abdomen, just above the navel and well below the breast bone. Grasp your fist with your other hand.
  • Keeping your elbows out, press your fist with a quick, upward thrust into the victim\'s abdomen. Each thrust is a separate attempt to clear the airway.
  • Continue performing this maneuver until the obstruction is cleared or the victim loses consciousness.
if you are the one who is choking and you are by yourself
If you are the one who is choking and you are by yourself:
  • Dial 911 from a land line (not a cell phone).
  • Get out where someone can see you.
  • Use the back of a chair or a table corner to give yourself abdominal thrusts.
if victim becomes unconscious
If Victim Becomes Unconscious:
  • Position victim on back.
  • Check the mouth to see if the object is visible (sweep it out with a finger)
  • Pinch their nose shut, tilt their head back, cover their mouth with yours.
  • Attempt to ventilate.
  • If unsuccessful on first try, reposition to open airway and try again.
  • If you still cannot ventilate, do abdominal thrusts:
abdominal thrusts unconscious victim
Abdominal Thrusts(Unconscious Victim)
  • Straddle the victim\'s thighs.
  • Place the heel of one of your hands against the middle of the victim\'s abdomen, just above the navel and well below the lower tip of the breastbone.
  • Place your other hand on top of your first hand.
  • Give up to 5 quick inward and upward thrusts.
Check the victim\'s mouth and do a finger sweep to remove the object if it has been dislodged.
  • If breathing has not been restored, open airway and attempt to give two more breaths.
  • If breaths won\'t go in, give another series of up to 5 thrusts, check mouth, and ventilate.
  • Continue this sequence until help arrives.
rescue breathing
  • This is a way to breathe air into someone’s lungs when they stop breathing.
  • Besides airway obstruction, there are other causes of lack of breathing:
    • Poison or drugs
    • Injury to the chest or lungs
    • Near drowning
    • Electrocution
    • Burns
    • Certain diseases or illnesses
    • Allergic reaction to insect bites or stings, or food
    • Shock
    • Heart attack or heart disease
first aid treatment30
First Aid Treatment
  • Always try to use a protective barrier.
  • Locate the source of bleeding.
  • Using a sterile dressing or clean cloth, apply direct pressure to the wound.
  • Raise the bleeding part above the level of the victim\'s heart if it does not cause more pain.
  • If bleeding doesn\'t stop or if you need to free your hands, apply a pressure bandage.
wounds requiring medical attention
Wounds Requiring Medical Attention
  • Bleeding that cannot be controlled
  • Deep injuries
  • Injury caused by dirty objects
  • Large or deeply embedded objects
  • Human or animal bites
  • Wounds that may cause a noticeable scar
  • Injury to the eye, eyelid or lip
  • Any injury where healing is in doubt
  • Any wound where infection may be or is present
eye injuries33

Foreign body in eye:

  • Gently flush eye with water.

Chemical in eye:

  • Wash eye with water, flushing from nose outward.
  • Continue flushing until EMS arrives.
Injury to eyeball:
  • Never put direct pressure on eyeball.
  • Place victim on his/her back.
  • Do not attempt to remove any objects that have entered eyeball.
  • Place a sterile dressing around object.
  • Stabilize any impaled object in place.
  • Get medical attention immediately.
Blow to eye:
  • Apply cold compresses immediately and continuously for 20 minutes.
  • If eye discolors, pain persists, there is obvious bleeding in or around the eye, or vision is disturbed, seek medical help.
fractures and dislocations37
  • Fractures
    • Chipped or cracked bones or complete breaks.
    • Open fracture: involves an open wound.
    • Closed fractures: skin is unbroken.
  • Dislocations
    • A bone separated or displaced from its normal position at a joint, involves ligament damage.
  • There will be swelling, heat, pain, and redness. There may be deformity or loss of function. Just because you can move it, does not mean it’s not broken!
first aid treatment38
First Aid Treatment
  • Call 911 if there is also bleeding. You still need to get them to the hospital if there’s a fracture.
  • Completely immobilize the injury before moving the victim.
  • Do not move a victim with a suspected injured hip, pelvis or upper leg unless necessary.
  • Do not attempt to straighten a suspected fracture or dislocation.
basic principles of splinting
Basic Principles of Splinting
  • Splint only if possible without causing more pain and discomfort
  • Splint an injury in the position you find it
  • Immobilize the fractured bone and the joints above and below the fracture
  • Check circulation before and after splinting
  • Treat for shock
  • Ice crystals form in body tissues (usually the nose, ears, chin, cheeks, fingers or toes) restricting blood flow to the injured part.
  • Symptoms:
    • Lack of feeling in affected area
    • Skin appears waxy
    • Skin is cold to touch
    • Skin is white, yellow, or blue
first aid treatment42
First Aid Treatment
  • Cover affected area, handling gently
  • Never rub the affected area
  • Warm the area by soaking in warm water (not hot)
  • Do NOT let the affected area touch the bottom or sides of the warm water container
  • Keep it in the water until skin is pink and warm
  • Bandage area with dry, sterile dressing
  • If fingers or toes are frostbitten, place cotton or gauze between them
  • Avoid breaking any blisters
  • Seek medical help as soon as possible
  • Life-threatening
  • The body\'s warming mechanisms fail to maintain normal body temperature and the entire body cools.
  • If body temperature drops below 95 \'F, the heart begins to beat erratically (ventricular fibrillation) and eventually stops.
  • Death then occurs.
signs and symptoms
Signs and Symptoms:
  • Shivering (may be absent in later stages)
  • Slow, irregular pulse
  • Numbness
  • Glassy stare
  • Apathy and decreasing levels of consciousness
first aid treatment45
First Aid Treatment
  • Remove any wet clothing and dry the victim.
  • Warm the body gradually.
  • Wrap the victim in blankets or put on dry clothing.
  • Move victim to a warm environment
  • If available, apply hot water bottles or heating pads.
  • If victim is alert, give warm liquids to drink (no alcohol!)
heart attack47
  • Chest discomfort, pain, pressure, squeezing or tightness
  • An aching, crushing, constricting feeling in the chest
  • Numbness or aching in the arms, neck, or jaw
  • Heavy sweating
  • Nausea
  • Shortness of breath
first aid treatment48
First Aid Treatment
  • Check for symptoms
  • Call 911
  • Care for victim
if victim is conscious
If Victim is Conscious
  • Have the victim stop activity and rest in a comfortable position.
  • Call 911
  • Loosen restrictive clothing.
  • Stay with them until help arrives
if victim is unconscious
If Victim is Unconscious
  • Shake and shout to get a response
  • Call 911
  • Monitor ABCs
    • Airway
    • Breathing
    • Circulation
abc s
  • Position the victim on their back.

A. Open the airway.

B. Look, listen, and feel for breathing.

    • If not breathing, give 2 breaths

C. Check carotid pulse

    • If no pulse, give 15 chest compressions and two breaths.
    • After 4 cycles of this, check for breathing and circulation again.
    • If no circulation, continue CPR until help arrives.
heat stroke53
  • Especially susceptible:
    • The very young
    • Very old
    • Chronically ill
    • Overweight
    • Work in hot places
    • Athletes
heat stroke is life threatening
Heat strokeis life-threatening

Brain damage and death may result if the body is not cooled quickly.


Hot, dry, red skin (no sweat)

Fast, weak pulse

Fast, shallow breathing

Progressive loss of consciousness

first aid treatment55
First Aid Treatment
  • Get the person out of the heat.
  • Call 911
  • Cool the victim fast.
  • Immerse victim in cool bath or wrap in wet sheets and fan them.
  • If victim is conscious, offer cool water to drink.
    • Give one-half glass (4 oz.) every 15 minutes.
first aid treatment57
First Aid Treatment
  • Wash area with soap and water
  • Cover affected area with a dressing
  • Apply cold pack with or without a salt pack
salt pack
Salt Pack
  • Mix small handful of salt with a few drops of water
  • Make a paste
  • Apply to insect bite or sting
  • Place cold compress on top
allergic reactions rare
Allergic Reactions (Rare)


    • Skin becomes red or swollen
    • Hives, itching, rash appears
    • Weakness, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness.
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Swelling obstructs airway
    • Death
  • Care for shock
  • If the person has their own anaphylaxis kit, assist them to use it.
diseases from tick bites rocky mountain spotted fever and lyme disease
Diseases from Tick Bites: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Lyme Disease
  • Symptoms in a few days or weeks
  • A rash starts around the bite
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Weakness
  • Pain in joint and muscles
  • Flu symptoms
for ticks
For Ticks
  • Coat the tick with Vaseline, wait for 10 minutes
  • Grasp it with tweezers close to the skin.
  • Pull gently and wait for it to release.
  • DO NOT try to burn it with a match or prick it with a pin.
  • If parts of the tick stay in the skin, obtain medical care.
  • Once tick is removed, wash area with soap and water.
  • Apply Triple Antibiotic ointment.
  • Observe the site periodically.
  • If rash develops, seek medical help.
black widow spider bites
  • Pain usually progresses up or down the bitten arm or leg, finally localizing in the abdomen and back. There may be pain in the muscles and soles of the feet, and eyelids may become swollen.
  • Muscle and chest pain or tightness, nausea, profuse perspiration, tremors, labored breathing and speech, and vomiting. In more serious cases, a weak pulse, cold clammy skin, unconsciousness, or convulsions may occur.
first aid treatment63
First Aid Treatment
  • Get medical attention immediately (Call poison control center).
  • Clean the site well with soap and water.
  • Apply a cool compress over the bite location
  • Keep the affected limb elevated to about heart level.
  • Try to keep the patient quiet and warm.
internal injuries65
  • Chest and Abdominal Injuries
  • The second leading cause of trauma deaths each year. Approximately 35% of all traffic fatalities in the U.S. involve chest injuries.
  • Injuries to the chest may result from falls, sports mishaps and crushing or penetrating forces. Organs such as the heart and lungs, and major blood vessels are the most likely to be injured.
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Severe pain
  • Flushed, pale, or cool skin
  • Obvious deformity
  • Coughing up blood
  • Fast pulse and breathing
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Weakness and thirst
first aid treatment67
First Aid Treatment
  • Call 911
  • Monitor ABC\'s
  • Control any external bleeding (use protective barriers if you have them).
  • Care for shock.
  • If victim vomits, place victim on their side.
poison control center



  • Swallowed
  • Absorbed
  • Inhaled
swallowed poison
Swallowed Poison
  • Overdosing on medication
  • Taking drugs with alcohol
  • Putting chemicals in unlabeled food containers
  • Medicines, plants and household products within reach of children
signs and symptoms72
Signs and Symptoms
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Chest or abdominal pain
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Sweating
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Seizures
  • NOTE: Look for opened or spilled containers and overturned plants for clues as to poison source.
first aid for swallowed poisons
First Aid for Swallowed Poisons
  • Call Poison Control Center or 911
  • Monitor ABC\'s
  • Place victim on their side if vomiting.
  • Save containers and any vomit to give to medical personnel
  • DO NOT induce vomiting if victim
    • is unconscious
    • is having a seizure
    • is pregnant
    • has ingested corrosive substance
    • is known to have heart disease
absorbed poisons
Absorbed Poisons
  • Insecticides
  • Agricultural chemicals
  • Plants such as poison ivy, oak or sumac
  • Venom from certain marine life
signs of absorbed poisons
Signs of Absorbed Poisons
  • Skin reaction, itching
  • Eye irritation
  • Changes in breathing and pulse
  • Headache
first aid for absorbed poisons
First Aid for Absorbed Poisons
  • Wash poison from skin
  • Remove clothing or other articles with poison on them
  • Monitor ABC\'s
inhaled poison
Inhaled Poison
  • Carbon monoxide (from car exhaust, defective cooking equipment, fire and charcoal grills)
  • Carbon dioxide (from wells and sewers)
  • Smoke
  • Refrigeration gases
  • Fumes from spray chemicals
  • Industrial and home chemicals
signs and symptoms78
Signs and Symptoms
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Unconsciousness
  • Pale or bluish skin color
first aid treatment for inhaled poisons
First Aid Treatment for Inhaled Poisons
  • Get the victim to fresh air as soon as possible
  • Place victim on their side if vomiting.
  • Follow directions from Poison Control Center or 911
  • Monitor ABC\'s
  • Be prepared to do rescue breathing or CPR if needed
  • Head injury
  • Disease
  • Fever
  • Infection
  • Epilepsy
    • Mild blackouts
    • Convulsions
      • Infants and young children are at risk of seizures from high fevers
signs a seizure is coming on
Signs a Seizure is Coming On
  • Visual hallucinations
  • Hearing strange sounds
  • Strange taste or smell
  • An urgent need to get to safety
  • Mild blackouts
  • Sudden uncontrolled muscle contractions (convulsions) lasting several minutes
first aid treatment for seizures
First Aid Treatment for Seizures
  • Check victim to see if they are wearing a medical alert tag

Call 911 in the following circumstances:

  • Has continuous or recurring seizures (more than 1 per hour)
  • Does not awaken between seizures
  • Is ill or injured
  • Has never had seizures before
  • Has diabetes or high blood pressure
  • Is pregnant
  • Has seizures that last longer than 2 minutes
  • Had a seizure in the water
during the seizure
During the Seizure
  • If you are there when episode is coming on, try to protect the victim from falling; help them down.
  • Remove any hard or sharp objects from the area.
  • Loosen any tight clothing, particularly around victim\'s neck.
  • Do NOT restrain the victim
  • Do NOT place anything between the victim\'s teeth
  • Do NOT move the victim unless he/she is in danger.
  • Do NOT perform rescue breathing on a seizure victim, even if he or she is turning blue
  • Do NOT give victim anything by mouth until the seizure has stopped and victim is fully awake.
after the seizure stops
After the Seizure Stops
  • If you do not suspect spinal injury, place victim on their side
  • Most seizure victims regain consciousness but then go into a deep sleep
  • Do NOT try to prevent the victim from sleeping after the seizure.
  • Monitor the victim while they recover.
  • Stay with the victim until he/she fully regains consciousness or until medical help arrives.
  • Shock occurs when the body cannot adjust to the stress from an illness or injury. The circulatory system fails to provide enough oxygen to the body. Shock is life-threatening.
  • NOTE: Shock can be caused by sudden illness, such as a heart attack or injury, especially injuries resulting in severe bleeding. It can also result from emotional stress.
first aid treatment for shock
First Aid Treatment for Shock
  • Call 911
  • Check victim to see if they are wearing a medical alert tag
  • Do NOT give the victim anything by mouth.
  • Check the ABC\'s
  • Place victim flat and elevate his/her feet 8 to 12 inches.
  • Try to maintain body temperature.
  • Give first aid for any underlying illness or injury.
  • A stroke is disruption of the blood flow to the brain due to a blot clot.
  • Other Common Causes:
    • Bleeding from a ruptured artery in the brain
    • A head injury
    • High blood pressure
    • A weak area in an artery wall (aneurysm)
    • Fat deposits lining an artery (atherosclerosis)
    • A tumor or swelling from the head injury compressing an artery.
signs and symptoms91
Signs and Symptoms
  • Sudden weakness and numbness of face, arm or leg, often on one side only
  • Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
  • Blurred or dimmed vision
  • Pupils of the eyes unequal in size
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Sudden severe headache
  • Ringing in the ears
  • Change in mood
  • Unconsciousness
  • Loss of bowel or bladder control
first aid treatment92
First Aid Treatment
  • Call 911 or get victim to the hospital
  • Check ABC\'s
  • Have victim rest in a comfortable position.
  • Do NOT give victim anything by mouth.
  • Stay with victim until medical help arrives.
  • If victim loses consciousness, place him/her on their side in the recovery position.
  • Continue to monitor ABC\'s until medical help arrives
spinal injuries
  • Improper care of injuries to the neck and back can lead to paralysis and possibly death.
  • When in doubt, assume there is a spinal injury.
  • The leading causes of spinal injuries are motor vehicle accidents, falls, acts of violence, and sports.
causes of head injuries
Causes of Head Injuries
  • A fall from a height greater than the victim\'s height
  • Any diving mishap
  • Severe blunt force to head or trunk
  • Penetrating injury such as a gunshot wound
  • A motor vehicle crash involving people not wearing seat belts
  • Any person thrown from a motor vehicle
  • Any injury in which a protective helmet is broken
  • Any incident involving a lightning strike
signs and symptoms96
Signs and Symptoms
  • Changes in levels of consciousness
  • Severe pain or pressure in head, neck, or back
  • Tingling or loss of sensation
  • Loss of movement in any body part
  • Unusual bumps or depressions on head or spine
  • Blood in the nose or ears
  • Seizures
  • Impaired breathing or vision
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Persistent headache
  • Loss of balance.
first aid treatment97
First Aid Treatment
  • Call 911
  • Minimize movement of the head and spine.
  • Monitor the ABC\'s
  • Control any external bleeding.
  • Treat for shock and maintain normal body temperature
if accident occurs in water
If Accident Occurs in Water:
  • Do NOT jump or dive into the water near the victim.
  • Approach victim carefully, to prevent unnecessary waves from causing further injury.
  • Move victim to surface of water, and rotate victim so they can breathe.
  • Move victim to shallow water if possible.
  • If you do not have a backboard, support victim in the water until EMS arrives.
  • Check for breathing.
  • Monitor ABC\'s
  • Treat for shock.
  • A sprainis the partial or complete tearing of ligaments and other tissues at a joint.
  • The more torn ligaments there are, the more severe the injury is.
  • The severity can range froma minor sprain to a major injury, which may rupture the ligament and require surgical repair.
signs and symptoms101
Signs and Symptoms
  • Mild to severe tenderness
  • Swelling
  • Possible looseness in joint
  • Deformity
  • Associated muscle spasm
  • Snapping ortearing sound
first aid treatment102
First Aid Treatment
  • Do NOT allow victim to move unassisted.
  • Do NOT allow victim to put stress on injured area.
  • Care for shock.
  • Monitor ABC\'s
  • RICE: Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation
    • Rest from activities for at least 48 hours
    • Ice for 20 minutes on, 20 minutes off
    • Compression with Ace wrap from distal to proximal, include all skin in the wrap (leave no gaps)
    • Elevate above heart as much as possible for 3 days