Cardiovascular system
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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. Heart Anatomy. General . Closed System Blood Remains in Blood Vessels & Heart Double System Four Chambers (Separation of Oxygenated & Deoxygenated Blood) Heart is Double Organ: Pulmonary Circuit (Heart  Lungs  Heart)

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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

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Cardiovascular system

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Heart Anatomy


General

General

  • Closed System

    • Blood Remains in Blood Vessels & Heart

  • Double System

    • Four Chambers (Separation of Oxygenated & Deoxygenated Blood)

    • Heart is Double Organ:

      • Pulmonary Circuit (Heart  Lungs  Heart)

      • Systemic Circuit (Heart Body Tissues  Heart)


Heart size location

Heart – Size & Location

  • Size: Adult Clenched Fist

  • Position: Mediastinum, 2/3 to Left of Midline

  • Relationships to Other Organs:

    • Medial to Lungs

    • Superior to Diaphragm

    • Anterior to Esophagus, Descending Aorta


Heart chambers

Heart - Chambers

  • Atria (2)

    • Superior Receiving Chambers (From Veins)

    • Auricles (ear-like flaps)

    • Right Atrium:

      • O2 Poor Blood From Venae Cavae & Coronary Sinus (Systemic Circ.)

    • Left Atrium:

      • O2 Rich Blood From Pulmonary Veins of Lungs


Heart chambers continued

Heart – Chambers continued

  • Ventricles (2)

    • Inferior Pumping Chambers (to Arteries)

    • Receive from Atria

    • Right Ventricle:

      • O2 Poor Blood from Rt Atrium to Pulmonary Arteries (Pulmonary Circ.)

    • Left Ventricle:

      • O2 Rich Blood from Left Atrium to Aorta (Systemic Circ.)


Heart valves

Heart - Valves

  • One-Way, Direct Blood Flow

  • Passive; blood pushes them closed

  • 2 Pairs:

    • Atrioventricular (Cuspid) Valves

      • Between Atria & Ventricles

        • Tricuspid (Right)

        • Bicuspid (left)


Atrioventricular valves cont

Atrioventricular Valves cont.

  • AV Valves are anchored to structures in the ventricles:

    • Chordae Tendineae

      • Strong, Fibrous Strings

      • Prevent Cusp Eversion

    • Papillary Muscle

      • Conical Extensions of Myocardium in Ventricles

      • Contract & pull on chordae tendinae


Av mitral valves

Cusps

AV (MITRAL) VALVES

OPEN

CLOSED


Heart valves1

Heart - Valves

  • Semilunar Valves

    • Between Ventricles & Arteries

    • Prevent blood from back flow into ventricles

      • Pulmonary Semilunar Valve (Right)

      • Aortic Semilunar Valve (Left)


Semilunar valves

Cusps

SEMILUNAR VALVES

OPEN

CLOSED


Heart wall

Heart - Wall

  • 3 Layers:

    • Endocardium (Inner)

      • Endothelium

      • Lines Chambers, Valves, Septa, Blood Vessels

    • Myocardium (Middle)

      • Thickest Layer (Esp. in Left Ventricle!)

      • Cardiac Muscle Tissue

      • Inherent Rhythmicity

      • Trabeculae Carnae – Ridges, Folds & Bridges of Ventricular Myocardium


Heart wall continued

Heart – Wall continued

  • Epicardium (Outer)

    • Visceral Pericardium

    • Serous Membrane

    • Thin, Fibrous, Transparent


Heart septa

Heart - Septa

  • Internal Walls

  • Separate Chambers

  • 2 Septa:

    • Interatrial Septum (Between the Atria)

    • Interventricular Septum (Between the Ventricles)


Heart pericardial sac

Heart – Pericardial Sac

  • Parietal Pericardium

    • Encloses Heart & Bases of Great Vessels

    • Composed of :

      • Inner Serous Coat/Serous Pericardium

        • Parietal & Visceral Pericardium

        • Both Secrete Lubricating Pericardial Fluid into

        • Pericardial Cavity (Space Between Serous Layers)


Heart pericardial sac continued

Heart – Pericardial Sac continued

  • Outer Fibrous Coat

    • Tough, Protective

    • Reinforces Serous Coat


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