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Terrorism. An overview By Martha Bohnenberger D. R. Hill Middle. What is terrorism?. Definitions. Encyclopedia Britannica.

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Terrorism

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Terrorism

An overview

By Martha Bohnenberger

D. R. Hill Middle


What is terrorism?


Definitions


Encyclopedia Britannica

“The systematic use of terror (such as bombings, killings, and kidnappings) as a means of forcing some political objective. When used by a government, it may signal efforts to stifle dissent; used by insurrectionists or guerrillas, it many be part of an overall effort to effect desired political change.”


Webster’s II New Riverside University Dictionary

“Systematic use of violence, terror, and intimidation to achieve an end.”


U.S. Department of State

“Terrorism is premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine state agents, usually to influence an audience.”


Federal Bureau of Investigation

“Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.”


League of Nations Convention (1937)

“All criminal acts directed against a State and calculated to create a state of terror in the minds of particular persons or group of persons or the general public.”


United Nations Resolutions Language (1999)

“1. Strongly condemns all acts, methods, and practices of terrorism as criminal and unjustifiable, wherever and by whomsoever committed;

2. Reiterates that criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes are in any circumstance unjustifiable, whatever the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or other nature that may be invoked to justify them.” (General Assembly Resolution 51/210, “measures to eliminate international terrorism”)


History or Terrorism


French Revolution

T

he term “terrorism” evolved during a phase of the French Revolution known as the “Reign of Terror”. From 1793 to 1794, one faction of the Revolution used violent methods to weed out “traitors” and to spread “terror” throughout the country. In just six weeks, more than 1,300 people were guillotined in Paris alone.


Terrorism is on the rise in recent years.


Time Line

1995 Murrah Building bombed, Oklahoma City

Oklahoma

1988, Pan Am #103 bombed, Lockerbie Scotland

1997 Shopping mall bombed, Jerusalem Isreal

1979 Diplomats held hostage, Tehran, Iran

1996, Truck bomb, Manchester England

1972 Israeli athletes taken hostage, Munich Germany

1998

U. S. Embassies bomed,

Kenya and Tanzania

1984 Golden Temple seized, Amritsar India

1992

Two car bombs explode, Lima, Peru

1995 Nerve gas released, Aum Shinrikyo

2001 Four airplanes hijacked and crashed, Washington, DC & New York City


Recent Terrorism1970s

1972 Israeli athletes taken hostage, Munich Germany

1979 Diplomats held hostage, Tehran, Iran


Tehran Iran

N

ovember, 1979. After the exiled Shah of Iran was admitted into the United States for medical treatment, angry Iranian students seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran and took scores of American diplomats hostage. Thirteen hostages were released shortly thereafter, but the others were held for over a year.


Recent Terrorism1984

1984 Golden Temple seized, Amritsar, India


Amritsar India

J

une, 1984. In an effort to establish an independent state, Sikh terrorists seized the Golden Temple in Amritsar, India. Prime Minister Indoor Gandhi ordered a military campaign to drive out the terrorists. Hundreds were killed.


1988, Pan Am #103 bombed, Lockerbie, Scotland

Recent Terrorism1988-1995

1995Murrah Building bombed, Oklahoma City, OK

1995 Nerve gas released, Aum Shinrikyo

1992 Two car bombs explode, Lima, Peru


Tokyo Japan

M

arch, 1995 The terrorist group, Aum Shinrikyo, released nerve gas in a Tokyo subway station to head off a raid by the Japanese government. The terrorist killed eleven people and injured thousands.


1996, Truck bomb, Manchester, England

Recent Terrorism1995-2001

2001 Four airplanes hijacked and crashed, Washington, DC and New York City

1998 U. S. Embassies bomed,

Kenya and Tanzania

1997 Shopping mall bombed, Jeruselem, Isreal


S

eptember 11, 2001 was the deadliest terrorist attack in history. Osama Bin Laden’s terrorist organization Al Qaeda hijacked 4 commercial jets. Two of the planes were flown into the World Trade Center, another into the Pentagon, and the last plane crashed in rural Pennsylvania. Thousands of lives were lost. Innocent citizens of over 80 different nations were attacked and killed without warning, shocking the civilized world.

New York City USA


Who are terrorists?

Terrorists can be anyone who believes in a cause strongly enough to commit violence to make a point.They can even be your neighbor next door.


What can we do about Terrorism?


The spread of terrorism world wide must be stopped through education.

Education about the terrorist groups and why the terrorist incidents happen is crucial, so that these acts can be stopped before they happen.

People worldwide need to join together in not allowing these criminals to use intimidation as a means of achieving their goals.


The following graphic organizers will help you research and better understand the terrorists groups and the reasoning behind their intimidation tactics.


Graphic Organizers on Terrorist Incidents


Bibliography

  • http://www.freefoto.com/

  • Terrorism, Bureau of Public Affairs, U. S. Department of State.

  • http://www.clipartconnection.com/searchsite/index.html?q=patriotism&b=9&f=jgwecbp&p=5

  • District Five Webpage


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