Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 17 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 17 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida. Mammals (You are what you eat). Synapsida: Including Modern Mammals (You are what you eat). AMNIOTA. Diadectomorpha(?) Synapsida Reptilia Avialae. Mammalia. “Therapsida”. “Pelycosauria”.

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Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 17 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida

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Natural Sciences 360

Legacy of Life

Lecture 17

Dr. Stuart S. Sumida

Mammals

(You are what you eat)


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Synapsida: Including Modern Mammals

(You are what you eat)


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AMNIOTA

Diadectomorpha(?)Synapsida Reptilia Avialae

Mammalia

“Therapsida”

“Pelycosauria”

The Synapsida can be divided into three “grades.”


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  • Mammals:

  • Mammary glands

  • Hair

  • Facial muscles – muscles of facial expression

  • A specialized jaw joint (between a single bone of the lower jaw (dentary) and the squamosal region of the skull)

  • Three bones in the middle ear to help in hearing


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Mammals have mammary glands for NOURISHING THE YOUNG

Mammals have HAIR.


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Mammals have muscles of facial expression


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Monotremata Metatheria Eutheria

(Egg-laying mammals) (Marsupials) (Placental Mammals)

Theria

Mammalia (detail)


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Monotremata Metatheria Eutheria

(Egg-laying mammals) (Marsupials) (Placental Mammals)

Theria

Mammalia

Monotremata: known since the Cretaceous


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The duck-billed platypus and spiney anteater (Echidna) are members of Monotremata (egg-laying mammals).


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Monotremata Metatheria Eutheria

(Egg-laying mammals) (Marsupials) (Placental Mammals)

Theria

Mammalia

Metatheria: also known since the Cretaceous


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Monotremata Metatheria Eutheria

(Egg-laying mammals) (Marsupials) (Placental Mammals)

Theria

Mammalia


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The METATHERIA, also known as MARSUPIALS are often called the “pouch mammals” because although initial development is internal, much takes place in the mother’s pouch – which is technically outside the body.


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Kangaroos can be almost orthograde


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Monotremata Metatheria Eutheria

(Egg-laying mammals) (Marsupials)(Placental Mammals)

Theria

PRIMITIVE PLACENTAL MAMMALS

Mammalia


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  • A Placenta:

  • Combination of the amniote Chorion and Allantois

  • Helps the developing embryo to communicate with mother.


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PRIMITIVE PLACENTAL MAMMALS

were very small.

The most primitive living mammals are called insectivores.


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  • Amongst the most primitive lineages of mammals:

  • Insectivores

  • Bats

  • Primates (We’ll talk about

  • them later.)


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Comparative wing structure in flying vertebrates


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  • More derived placental mammals:

  • Many groups.

  • Body shape and function is very much determined by diet.


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  • Animation, Mammals, and Science

  • Physical Laws

  • Structure

  • Function

  • Ontogenetic Stage and Sex

  • Cutting and Pasting


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TRANSVERSEGALLOP

ROTARYGALLOP


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Primates


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PRIMATES

“Prosimians” New World Old World “Great Apes”

Monkeys Monkeys Hominoidea

  • Synapomorphies of Primates:

  • Nails on all digits

  • Opposable hallux (big toe)*

  • *later lost in some


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  • “Prosimians” include:

  • Lemurs

  • Lorises

  • Aye-aye

  • Tarsiers

  • Primitive, relatively small, arboreal forms.

  • Most have long tails, but none have prehensile tails.


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  • NEW WORLD MONKEYS

  • Noses are “flat” – nostrils face sideways.

  • Tail is often prehesile (acts like a fifth grasping structure)

  • Arboreal

    • Quadrupedal locomotion on top of limbs

    • Brachiation (limb swinging)


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  • OLD WORLD MONKEYS

  • Noses are not “flat” – nostrils face forward

  • Tail is not prehesile

  • Arboreal forms

    • Quadrupedal locomotion on top of limbs

    • Brachiation (limb swinging)

  • Terrestrial forms as well


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Old World Monkeys:

Tails are not prehensile


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  • HOMINOIDEA (The Great Apes)

  • Living Members:

  • Gibbons

  • Orangutans

  • Gorillas

  • Chimpanzees and Bonobos

  • Humans

  • Tail significantly reduced.

  • Group was originally arboreal.

  • Many members now terrestrial.


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HOMINOIDEA (Living Members)

Gibbons Orangutans Gorillas Chimps Humans

Hylobates Pongo Gorilla Pan Homo


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Dichromatic species of gibbon


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Orangutans use all four limbs equally in climbing. Hands and feet are essentially equivalent.

QUADRUMANUAL Condition


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Humans are more similar to juvenile apes than adult apes. Neotony!


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THE FAMILY HOMINIDAE

Major GeneraSpecies

Ardipithicus

Australopithicus

Paranthropus

HomoH. habilis

H. erectus

H. neanderthalensis

H. sapiens


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Austraulopithicus afarensis is amongst the most important of early hominid fossils.

It is amongst the most complete of early fossils to demonstrate the orthograde, bipedal nature of early hominids…3.8 to 4 million years old.


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“Lucy” is an example of Australopithicus afarensis

Orthograde bipedality

Key feature: position of femur in hip socket


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Homo habilis – the first human tool users?

Homo erectus – more gracile and more fully orthograde.

Homo neanderthalensis – larger brains than modern Homo sapiens. Lived side-by-side with Homo sapiens.


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Homo habilis – the first human tool users?


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Homo erectus – more gracile and more fully orthograde than more primitive groups.

Recent analysis of footprint fossils indicate a style of walking very much like Homo sapiens.


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Homo erectus – more gracile and more fully orthograde.


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Homo neanderthalensis


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Homo neanderthalensis tool


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Homo neanderthalensis reconstruction


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COMPARISON OF HOMO NEANDERTHALENSIS (LEFT) AND HOMO SAPIENS (RIGHT) SKELETONS

Recent analysis of the H. neanderthalensis genome suggests they did NOT interbreed.


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Homo floresiensis


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Homo floresiensis

Possibly one of the most amazing of recent discoveries.

The discovery of a very small, (~ 1 meter tall) new species of Homo that lived on islands near Indonesia only about 38,000 to 18,000 years ago.

Some have tried to argue they were pathological, but this is not correct.


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HUMAN SEXUAL DIMORPHISM


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Male and female hips are of differing proportions:

Males: taller, narrower, pubic angle less than 90 degrees, circular opening.

Females: wider, pubic angle greater than 90 degrees, oval opening.


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Females: Shorter torsos, longer legs.

Males: longer torsos, shorter legs.


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