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Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 17 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida. Mammals (You are what you eat). Synapsida: Including Modern Mammals (You are what you eat). AMNIOTA. Diadectomorpha(?) Synapsida Reptilia Avialae. Mammalia. “Therapsida”. “Pelycosauria”.

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Natural Sciences 360

Legacy of Life

Lecture 17

Dr. Stuart S. Sumida

Mammals

(You are what you eat)


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Synapsida: Including Modern Mammals

(You are what you eat)


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AMNIOTA

Diadectomorpha(?)Synapsida Reptilia Avialae

Mammalia

“Therapsida”

“Pelycosauria”

The Synapsida can be divided into three “grades.”


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  • Mammals:

  • Mammary glands

  • Hair

  • Facial muscles – muscles of facial expression

  • A specialized jaw joint (between a single bone of the lower jaw (dentary) and the squamosal region of the skull)

  • Three bones in the middle ear to help in hearing


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Mammals have mammary glands for NOURISHING THE YOUNG

Mammals have HAIR.



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Monotremata Metatheria Eutheria

(Egg-laying mammals) (Marsupials) (Placental Mammals)

Theria

Mammalia (detail)


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Monotremata Eutheria Metatheria Eutheria

(Egg-laying mammals) (Marsupials) (Placental Mammals)

Theria

Mammalia

Monotremata: known since the Cretaceous


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The duck-billed platypus and spiney anteater ( EutheriaEchidna) are members of Monotremata (egg-laying mammals).


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Monotremata EutheriaMetatheria Eutheria

(Egg-laying mammals) (Marsupials) (Placental Mammals)

Theria

Mammalia

Metatheria: also known since the Cretaceous


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Monotremata EutheriaMetatheria Eutheria

(Egg-laying mammals) (Marsupials) (Placental Mammals)

Theria

Mammalia


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The EutheriaMETATHERIA, also known as MARSUPIALS are often called the “pouch mammals” because although initial development is internal, much takes place in the mother’s pouch – which is technically outside the body.



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Monotremata Metatheria Eutheria

(Egg-laying mammals) (Marsupials)(Placental Mammals)

Theria

PRIMITIVE PLACENTAL MAMMALS

Mammalia


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  • A Placenta:

  • Combination of the amniote Chorion and Allantois

  • Helps the developing embryo to communicate with mother.


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PRIMITIVE PLACENTAL MAMMALS

were very small.

The most primitive living mammals are called insectivores.


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TRANSVERSE GALLOP

ROTARYGALLOP



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PRIMATES

“Prosimians” New World Old World “Great Apes”

Monkeys Monkeys Hominoidea

  • Synapomorphies of Primates:

  • Nails on all digits

  • Opposable hallux (big toe)*

  • *later lost in some


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  • Prosimians” include:

  • Lemurs

  • Lorises

  • Aye-aye

  • Tarsiers

  • Primitive, relatively small, arboreal forms.

  • Most have long tails, but none have prehensile tails.


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  • NEW WORLD MONKEYS

  • Noses are “flat” – nostrils face sideways.

  • Tail is often prehesile (acts like a fifth grasping structure)

  • Arboreal

    • Quadrupedal locomotion on top of limbs

    • Brachiation (limb swinging)


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  • OLD WORLD MONKEYS

  • Noses are not “flat” – nostrils face forward

  • Tail is not prehesile

  • Arboreal forms

    • Quadrupedal locomotion on top of limbs

    • Brachiation (limb swinging)

  • Terrestrial forms as well


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Old World Monkeys:

Tails are not prehensile


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  • HOMINOIDEA (The Great Apes)

  • Living Members:

  • Gibbons

  • Orangutans

  • Gorillas

  • Chimpanzees and Bonobos

  • Humans

  • Tail significantly reduced.

  • Group was originally arboreal.

  • Many members now terrestrial.


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HOMINOIDEA (Living Members)

Gibbons Orangutans Gorillas Chimps Humans

Hylobates Pongo Gorilla Pan Homo



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Orangutans use all four limbs equally in climbing. Hands and feet are essentially equivalent.

QUADRUMANUAL Condition


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Humans are more similar to juvenile apes than adult apes. and feet are essentially equivalent.Neotony!


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THE FAMILY HOMINIDAE and feet are essentially equivalent.

Major Genera Species

Ardipithicus

Australopithicus

Paranthropus

HomoH. habilis

H. erectus

H. neanderthalensis

H. sapiens


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Austraulopithicus afarensis and feet are essentially equivalent. is amongst the most important of early hominid fossils.

It is amongst the most complete of early fossils to demonstrate the orthograde, bipedal nature of early hominids…3.8 to 4 million years old.


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“Lucy” is an example of and feet are essentially equivalent.Australopithicus afarensis

Orthograde bipedality

Key feature: position of femur in hip socket


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Homo habilis and feet are essentially equivalent. – the first human tool users?

Homo erectus – more gracile and more fully orthograde.

Homo neanderthalensis – larger brains than modern Homo sapiens. Lived side-by-side with Homo sapiens.


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Homo habilis and feet are essentially equivalent. – the first human tool users?


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Homo erectus and feet are essentially equivalent. – more gracile and more fully orthograde than more primitive groups.

Recent analysis of footprint fossils indicate a style of walking very much like Homo sapiens.


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Homo erectus and feet are essentially equivalent. – more gracile and more fully orthograde.


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Homo neanderthalensis and feet are essentially equivalent.


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Homo neanderthalensis and feet are essentially equivalent.tool


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Homo neanderthalensis and feet are essentially equivalent.reconstruction


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COMPARISON OF and feet are essentially equivalent.HOMO NEANDERTHALENSIS (LEFT) AND HOMO SAPIENS (RIGHT) SKELETONS

Recent analysis of the H. neanderthalensis genome suggests they did NOT interbreed.


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Homo floresiensis and feet are essentially equivalent.


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Homo floresiensis and feet are essentially equivalent.

Possibly one of the most amazing of recent discoveries.

The discovery of a very small, (~ 1 meter tall) new species of Homo that lived on islands near Indonesia only about 38,000 to 18,000 years ago.

Some have tried to argue they were pathological, but this is not correct.


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HUMAN SEXUAL DIMORPHISM and feet are essentially equivalent.


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Male and female hips are of differing proportions: and feet are essentially equivalent.

Males: taller, narrower, pubic angle less than 90 degrees, circular opening.

Females: wider, pubic angle greater than 90 degrees, oval opening.


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Females: and feet are essentially equivalent. Shorter torsos, longer legs.

Males: longer torsos, shorter legs.


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