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Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 5 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 5 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida. Plants Getting on Land and What We Eat. (In this course, a KEY INNOVATION is a feature that is not only a synapomorphy of a group, but also a feature that allows or facilitates a broad adaptive radiation.).

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Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 5 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida

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Natural Sciences 360

Legacy of Life

Lecture 5

Dr. Stuart S. Sumida

Plants

Getting on Land

and

What We Eat


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(In this course, a KEY INNOVATION is a feature that is not only a synapomorphy of a group, but also a feature that allows or facilitates a broad adaptive radiation.)


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  • THREE GREAT KINGDOMS OF MEGAEUKARYOTIC PHOTOAUTOTROPHS:

  • RED SEAWEEDS (ALGAE)

  • BROWN SEAWEEDS (ALGAE)

  • PLANTAE


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OUR FOCUS ON PLANTS:

The Water to Land Transition

Flowering Plants


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  • The Water to Land Transition:

  • (How do you keep from drying out and falling over?)

  • Cell Walls

  • Cuticle – waxy layer on aerial surfaces

  • Stomata (singular = stomate) – openings that can be controlled to prevent water loss

  • Development of Embryos

  • Spores for dispersal

  • Plus TWO KEY INNOVATIONS


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KEY INNOVATIONS OF LAND PLANTS:

Alternation of generations

Vascular Tissues


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  • The Water to Land Transition:

  • (How do you keep from drying out and falling over?)

  • Cell Walls

  • Cuticle – waxy layer on aerial surfaces

  • Stomata (singular = stomate) – openings that can be controlled to prevent water loss

  • Development of Embryos

  • Spores for dispersal

  • Plus TWO KEY INNOVATIONS


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KEY INNOVATIONS OF LAND PLANTS:

Alternation of generations

Vascular Tissues


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Cell Walls


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Closed stomate

Guard Cells


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Closed

Stomate

Open

Stomate


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Alternation of “Generations”:

An alternation between form that makes gametes (sperm and eggs) called the GAMETOPHYTE GENERATION.

And

The form that makes the spores for distribution called the SPOROPHYTE GENERATION.


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VASCULAR TISSUE

Tissues for:

transporting water – XYLEM

transporting food (sugars, etc.) – PHLOEM


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Vascular Plants = “Tracheophyta”

Sphenophyta (Horsetails)

Pterophyta (Ferns)

“Gymnosperms”

Cycadophyta

Ginkophyta

Coniferophyta

Anthophyta (includes flowering plants)


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Equisetum arvense

Sphenophyta (Horsetails and their relatives)

From Late Devonian (dominant and common in Late Devonian and Carboniferous)


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Adiantum

Pterophyta (ferns)

Known since the Carboniferous


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Cycadophyta (cycads) Cycas

Known from Carboniferous


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5 million year old

Ginko leaf fossil

Ginkophyta

Known from end of Cretaceous (end of age of dinoaurs)


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Coniferophyta (“evergreens” or “conifers”)

Known since Late Carboniferous


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Pinus aristata

Coniferophyta (“evergreens” or “conifers”)

Known since Late Carboniferous


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Anthophyta (includes flowering plants)

Some types known since Jurassic, but flowering plants known from end of Cretaceous


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Flowering Plants

Monocots – Grasses and others

Dicots – Flowers that give fruits


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The MONOCOTS comprise one-quarter of all flowering plant species. They include lilies, orchids, agaves, palms, and grasses.


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Flowering Plants:

So just what ARE you eating?


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Flowering plants produce not only seeds, but fruits.

So what exactly is a fruit?

Or a vegetable for that matter?

To understand, we have to turn to flowers and flower structure…


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