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Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 5 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida

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Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 5 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida. Plants Getting on Land and What We Eat. (In this course, a KEY INNOVATION is a feature that is not only a synapomorphy of a group, but also a feature that allows or facilitates a broad adaptive radiation.).

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slide1

Natural Sciences 360

Legacy of Life

Lecture 5

Dr. Stuart S. Sumida

Plants

Getting on Land

and

What We Eat

slide2

(In this course, a KEY INNOVATION is a feature that is not only a synapomorphy of a group, but also a feature that allows or facilitates a broad adaptive radiation.)

slide3

THREE GREAT KINGDOMS OF MEGAEUKARYOTIC PHOTOAUTOTROPHS:

  • RED SEAWEEDS (ALGAE)
  • BROWN SEAWEEDS (ALGAE)
  • PLANTAE
slide4

OUR FOCUS ON PLANTS:

The Water to Land Transition

Flowering Plants

slide5

The Water to Land Transition:

  • (How do you keep from drying out and falling over?)
  • Cell Walls
  • Cuticle – waxy layer on aerial surfaces
  • Stomata (singular = stomate) – openings that can be controlled to prevent water loss
  • Development of Embryos
  • Spores for dispersal
  • Plus TWO KEY INNOVATIONS
slide6

KEY INNOVATIONS OF LAND PLANTS:

Alternation of generations

Vascular Tissues

slide7

The Water to Land Transition:

  • (How do you keep from drying out and falling over?)
  • Cell Walls
  • Cuticle – waxy layer on aerial surfaces
  • Stomata (singular = stomate) – openings that can be controlled to prevent water loss
  • Development of Embryos
  • Spores for dispersal
  • Plus TWO KEY INNOVATIONS
slide8

KEY INNOVATIONS OF LAND PLANTS:

Alternation of generations

Vascular Tissues

slide11

Closed stomate

Guard Cells

slide12

Closed

Stomate

Open

Stomate

slide14

Alternation of “Generations”:

An alternation between form that makes gametes (sperm and eggs) called the GAMETOPHYTE GENERATION.

And

The form that makes the spores for distribution called the SPOROPHYTE GENERATION.

slide15

VASCULAR TISSUE

Tissues for:

transporting water – XYLEM

transporting food (sugars, etc.) – PHLOEM

slide16

Vascular Plants = “Tracheophyta”

Sphenophyta (Horsetails)

Pterophyta (Ferns)

“Gymnosperms”

Cycadophyta

Ginkophyta

Coniferophyta

Anthophyta (includes flowering plants)

slide17

Equisetum arvense

Sphenophyta (Horsetails and their relatives)

From Late Devonian (dominant and common in Late Devonian and Carboniferous)

slide18

Adiantum

Pterophyta (ferns)

Known since the Carboniferous

slide19

Cycadophyta (cycads) Cycas

Known from Carboniferous

slide20

5 million year old

Ginko leaf fossil

Ginkophyta

Known from end of Cretaceous (end of age of dinoaurs)

slide22

Pinus aristata

Coniferophyta (“evergreens” or “conifers”)

Known since Late Carboniferous

slide23

Anthophyta (includes flowering plants)

Some types known since Jurassic, but flowering plants known from end of Cretaceous

slide24

Flowering Plants

Monocots – Grasses and others

Dicots – Flowers that give fruits

slide25

The MONOCOTS comprise one-quarter of all flowering plant species. They include lilies, orchids, agaves, palms, and grasses.

slide26

Flowering Plants:

So just what ARE you eating?

slide27

Flowering plants produce not only seeds, but fruits.

So what exactly is a fruit?

Or a vegetable for that matter?

To understand, we have to turn to flowers and flower structure…

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