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African Swine Fever. Pesti Porcine Africaine, Fiebre Porcina Africana, Maladie de Montgomery. Overview. Organism Economic Impact Epidemiology Transmission Clinical Signs Diagnosis and Treatment Prevention and Control Actions to Take. The Organism. African Swine Fever Virus.

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African Swine Fever

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African swine fever l.jpg

African Swine Fever

Pesti Porcine Africaine, Fiebre Porcina Africana,Maladie de Montgomery


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Overview

  • Organism

  • Economic Impact

  • Epidemiology

  • Transmission

  • Clinical Signs

  • Diagnosis and Treatment

  • Prevention and Control

  • Actions to Take

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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The Organism


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African Swine Fever Virus

  • Highly contagiousviral disease of swine

  • Asfarviridae

    • Enveloped DNA virus

    • Only DNA virus transmitted by arthropods

  • Isolates vary in virulence

    • High virulence: 100% mortality

    • Low virulence: seroconversion

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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African Swine Fever Virus

  • Highly resistant

    • At least 30 days in pens

    • > 140 days in somepork products

  • Killed by high tempsand some disinfectants

  • Affects domestic andwild pigs

warthog

bush pig

collared peccary

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Importance


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History

  • 1900’s: Domestic pigs in Kenya

  • 1957, 1960s

    • Spread to Europe

    • Successful eradication by 1990s

  • 1963: Found in soft ticks

  • 1971: 1st time in Western Hemisphere

  • Late 1970’s

    • Outbreaks in South America and Caribbean

    • Successful eradication through depopulation

  • 2007: Outbreak in country of Georgia

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Economic Impact

Animal Health

High mortality

Highly contagious

Import and export bans

Movement restrictions

Quarantine and Depopulation

Required for eradication

Can become prolonged epidemic

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Epidemiology


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Geographic Distribution

  • Endemic in southern Africa

  • Outbreaks have occurred in Europe, South America, and the Caribbean

  • Eradicated from the Western Hemisphere and Europe

    • Except for feral pigs onthe Island of Sardinia (Italy)

  • 2007- Multiple outbreaks inthe country of Georgia

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Morbidity/Mortality

  • Morbidity approaches 100%

    • Previously unexposed herds

    • Herds in contact with each other

  • Mortality varies with virulenceof isolate

    • Ranges from 0%-100%

  • No treatment or vaccine

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Transmission


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Animal Transmission

  • Direct contact

    • Infected animals(usually oronasal)

  • Indirect

    • Feeding of uncooked garbage

    • Fomites

      • Contaminated clothing or footwear, equipment, vehicles, feed

    • Bite of infected ticks

    • Mechanically by biting flies

  • Found in all tissues and body fluids

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Animals and African Swine Fever


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Clinical Signs:High Virulence

  • Incubation period: 5-19 days

  • High fever

  • Moderate anorexia

  • Erythema, cyanosis

  • Recumbency

  • Bloody diarrhea

  • Frequent abortions

  • Death

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Clinical Signs: Chronic Disease

  • Multi-focal erythema

    • Ears, abdomen, inner thigh

    • May be raised and necrotic

  • Low fever

  • Pneumonia

  • Painless swelling of carpal and tarsal joints

  • Emaciation, stunting

  • Death

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Post Mortem Lesions:Most Common

Spleen

Enlarged

Friable

Dark red, black

Lymph nodes

Swollen

Hemorrhagic

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Post Mortem Lesions:Chronic Infection

Focal skin necrosis

Fibrinous pericarditis

Generalized lymphadenopathy

Swollen joints

Consolidated lobules in lung

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Post Mortem Lesions:Less Common

Hemorrhages

Petechiae

Ecchymoses

Edema

Lungs and gall bladder

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Acute PRRS

Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome

Erysipelas

Salmonellosis

Aujeszky’s disease (pseudorabies)

Classical swine fever (hog cholera)

Eperythrozoonosis

Actinobacillosis

Glasser’s Disease

Pasteurellosis

Thrombocytopenic purpura

Warfarin poisoning

Heavy metal toxicity

Differential Diagnosis

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Sampling

Before collecting or sending any samples, the proper authorities should be contacted

Samples should only be sent under secure conditions and to authorized laboratories to prevent the spread of the disease

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Diagnosis

  • Suspect ASF in pigs with:

    • Fever

    • Characteristic post mortemsigns in spleen, lymph nodes

  • Laboratory Tests

    • Virus isolation

    • Viral antibody detection

    • PCR

  • There is no treatment

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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African Swine Feverin Humans

Humans are not susceptible.


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Prevention and Control


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Recommended Actions

  • Notification of state or federal authorities IMMEDIATELY

    • Federal: Area Veterinarian in Charge (AVIC) www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/area_offices.html

    • State veterinarian www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/sregs/official.html

  • Quarantine

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Quarantine

  • Suspicion of ASF

    • Entire herd quarantined

      • Strict enforcement

      • Authorities notified

      • Diagnosis confirmed

  • Disposal of carcasses

    • Burial

    • Burning

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Disinfection

  • Most disinfectants ineffective

  • Use an ASFV-approved disinfectant

    • Sodium hypochlorite

    • Some iodine and quaternary ammonium compounds

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Prevention

  • Garbage fed to pigs must be cooked

    • Unprocessed meat must be heated

  • Potential tick vectors

    • Controlled with acaricides

  • Isolation of infected animals

  • Eradication

    • Slaughter of infected and in-contact animals

  • Virus killed by heat

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Vaccination

  • No vaccine

    • All attempts unsuccessful

  • We all need todo our part

    • Keep our pigs healthy

    • Free of foreign animal diseases

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Additional Resources

  • World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)

    • www.oie.int

  • U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

    • www.aphis.usda.gov

  • Center for Food Security and Public Health

    • www.cfsph.iastate.edu

  • USAHA Foreign Animal Diseases(“The Gray Book”)

    • www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/gray_book02/index.php

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Acknowledgments

Development of this presentationwas funded by grants from

the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Iowa Homeland Security and Emergency Management Division, and the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardshipto the Center for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State University.

Authors: Jean Gladon, BS, DVM; Anna Rovid Spickler, DVM, PhD; Reviewers: James A. Roth, DVM, PhD; Bindy Comito, BA; Katie Spaulding, BS; Jane Galyon, MS; Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MPH, DACVPM

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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