Chapter 8 water soluble vitamins
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Chapter 8: Water Soluble Vitamins. Intro to Vitamins. Food substances that are a “vital” to life 2 classes of vitamins. Fat Soluble Vitamin A D E K. Water Soluble (Bs & C) Ascorbic Acid (Vit C) Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12 Biotin, Folate.

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Intro to Vitamins

  • Food substances that are a “vital” to life

  • 2 classes of vitamins


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Fat Soluble

Vitamin A

D

E

K

Water Soluble (Bs & C)

Ascorbic Acid (Vit C)

Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12

Biotin, Folate

Vitamins


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Vitamins

  • Structure: individual units

  • Function: do not yield energy

  • Requirement: very little (micrograms/milligrams vs. grams)


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Vitamins

  • Availability:

    • Riboflavin

    • Vitamin C

  • Bioavailability: how much a nutrient is absorbed & available for use.



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Transport: FSV need carriers

Storage: FSV are stored in the cells

Toxicity: FSV more likely

Requirement: FSV less frequently

FSV vs. WSV


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General functions of B vitamins

  • Energy metabolism

  • Coenzyme for various functions

    • Neurological


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General Deficiencies of B Vitamins

  • Dermatitis: Skin

  • Gastrointestinal: GI problems

  • Nervous system: Central & peripheral

  • Fatigue


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Goal

  • To understand the specific vitamin associated to a specific disease


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Beriberi:

Thiamin

Wet Beriberi: edema

Weakened capillaries

Dry Beriberi: Muscle, partial paralysis

Damaged nerves


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Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

  • Wernicke’s: confusion, disorientation, memory loss, jerky eye movements

  • Poor nutrition + alcoholism



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Thiamin (B1)

  • Disease

    1. Beriberi

    2. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

  • Deficiency

    • Nervous system

    • Anorexia

  • Toxicity: none


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Thiamin

  • Sources:Moderate in all nutritious food

    • Destroyed by heat

    • Thiaminase-raw fish

  • RDA: ~ 1 mg


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Riboflavin (B2)

Curly toes Inflamed eyelids



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Riboflavin (Vit B2)

  • Disease: Ariboflavinosis

  • Deficiency:Dermatitis

    • Skin: Lesions

    • Mouth: Cracks & redness

    • Eyes: Inflamed eyelids

    • Tongue: Smooth, purplish red

  • Toxicity: none


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Riboflavin

  • Sources:

    • Milk products

    • Enriched or whole grains

  • Destroyed by UV light & irradiation

  • RDA:~ 1 mg


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Before

After

Pellagra:

Niacin (B3)


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Pellagra

  • Niacin

  • Tryptophan



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Niacin (B3)

  • Deficiency: Pellagra

  • Symptoms: (4 Ds)

    1. Diarrhea – GI

    2. Dermatitis - rash

    3. Dementia/Depression

    4. Death


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Niacin

  • Toxicity

    • “Niacin Flush”: painful flush, hives, rash

    • Excessive sweating

    • Blurred vision

    • Liver damage


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Niacin

  • Sources:

    • All protein-containing foods

    • Tryptophan

  • RDA: 15mg

  • UL: 35mg


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Biotin

Deficiency:


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Biotin

  • Deficiency:

    • Brain

    • Dermatitis: Red, scaly rash

    • Hair loss

      Avidin: Egg white


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Biotin

  • Sources:

    • Egg yolks, soybeans, fish, whole grains

    • Limited production by GI bacteria

  • AI: 30 g/day


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Vitamin (B6)

  • Functions:

    1. Convert tryptophan  niacin  serotonin

    2. Help make red blood cells

  • Deficiency:

    • Brain

      2. Anemia: microcytic, small-cell type

      INH medication*


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Vitamin B6

  • Toxicity: Nervous system

    • Depression, fatigue, nerve damage

  • Sources: Meats, potatoes

  • RDA: 1.3 mg

  • Toxicity: 100 mg


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    Folate Fortification

    • Neural tube defects (Spina bifida)




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    Folate

    Deficiency Non-deficient


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    Folate (folic acid)

    • Functions

      • DNA synthesis

        2. New cell formation

        3. Break down homocysteine

    • Deficiency

      • Neural Tube defect

      • Macrocytic anemia (large-cell type)

      • Heart disease: High homocysteine


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    Folate

    • Folate: Ring + glutamate (supplements)

    • Food: Ring + polyglutamate


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    Folate

    1. Mouth: polyglutamate

    2. SI: broken down to monoglutamate

    3. SI: add a methyl group to be absorbed


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    Folate

    4. Cell: CH3 is attached  inactive form

    5. Activate: Vit B12 takes CH3.

    6. Folate & B12 are active for DNA synthesis


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    Folate

    • RDA: 400 g

    • 600 g

    • Toxicity: 1000 g

    • Toxicity symptoms: Masks vitamin B12-deficiency symptoms


    Vitamin b 12 cobalamin l.jpg
    Vitamin B12Cobalamin

    • Functions

      • Coenzymes: energy metabolism

      • New cell synthesis

      • Maintain nerve cells

    • Deficiency symptoms:

      • Fatigue

      • Anemia: Macrocytic

      • Degeneration of p. nerves  paralysis


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    Vitamin B12

    • RDA: 2.4 g/day

    • Sources: Animal & fortified products

    • Toxicity: none reported


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    Digestion & Absorption Vit B12

    • Diet: Animal products

    • Stomach: HCl/Pepsin release B12

    • SI: B12 binds to *intrinsic factor

    • Absorbed

      • GI problems, genetic*, vegetarians



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    Vitamin C

    • Functions

      • Collagen synthesis

        • Strengthens blood vessel walls

        • Provides matrix for bone growth

      • Antioxidant

      • Strengthens resistance to infection

      • Increases absorption of iron


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    Vitamin C

    • Deficiency disease: scurvy

    • Deficiency symptoms:

      • Anemia

      • Bleeding: gums, blood vessels

      • Muscle and joint pain

      • Poor wound healing


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    Vitamin C

    • Toxicity symptoms:

      1. Brain: Nausea, insomnia, depression, headache, fatigue

      2. GI: abdominal cramps, diarrhea,

      3. Skin: Hot flashes, rashes

      UL: 2000 mg


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    Vitamin C

    • RDA:

      • Men: 90 mg

      • Women: 75 mg

      • Smokers: + 35 mg

    • Sources:

      • Citrus fruits

      • Cabbage-type & dark green vegetables

    • Easily destroyed by heat and oxygen


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    Vitamin C ascorbic acid

    Vitamin C donate and accept hydrogens (Hs)  protects against oxidative damage, antioxidant


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