Competitive markets under asymmetric information chapter 11
Download
1 / 17

Competitive Markets Under Asymmetric Information - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 292 Views
  • Updated On :

Competitive Markets Under Asymmetric Information Chapter 11. An assumption of pure competition was complete knowledge of all market information. But knowledge can be unevenly distributed among firms and consumers.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Competitive Markets Under Asymmetric Information' - Pat_Xavi


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Competitive markets under asymmetric information chapter 11 l.jpg
Competitive Markets Under Asymmetric InformationChapter 11

An assumption of pure competition was complete knowledge of all market information. But knowledge can be unevenly distributed among firms and consumers.

The concept of a "lemon" in the car market and adverse selection problem are only two of the interesting market phenomena when information is unevenly distributed (asymmetric) among the market participants

2002 South-Western Publishing


Asymmetric information l.jpg
Asymmetric Information

  • Used car: who knows what about it?

  • Incomplete Information -- uncertain knowledge of payoffs, choices, or types of opponents a market player faces.

  • Asymmetric Information-- unequal or dissimilar knowledge among market participants.


Slide3 l.jpg
不完全訊息與訊息不對稱

  • 不完全訊息

    • 當某些訊息不知道的時候(不確定性)

  • 不對稱訊息

    • 一方比另一方擁有更多、更優越的訊息

  • 擁有較少、較劣質訊息的一方遭遇不完全訊息

  • 不完全訊息的的例子

    • 明天的天氣

    • 明天的道瓊指數和恒生指數


Slide4 l.jpg
不完全訊息與訊息不對稱(續)

  • 所有人對將來都不確定:沒有不對稱

  • 對比

    • 汽車保險

      • 司機對於自己的小心程度和習慣比保險公司有更清楚的瞭解:訊息不對稱

      • 保險公司對於司機的小心程度和習慣有不完全訊息


Incomplete contracting and incomplete markets l.jpg
Incomplete Contracting and Incomplete Markets

  • Insurance works when we can pool a group of possible events (like injuries at work) to reduce the risk of loss to any one party.

  • But some risks are catastrophic, like a nuclear accident. It is difficult to assess the likelihood or the damage; hence, insurance in this case is often unavailable.

  • Contracts can specify duties under several states of the world, but sometimes the outcomes are too numerous or unknowable for years. This creates incomplete contracts.


Types l.jpg
Types

  • Full contingent claims contract-- specifies all possible future events.

  • Incomplete contingent claims contract-- not all possible future events are specified.

  • Due to incomplete contracts, some people may take advantage of spirit of the contract.

    • Accident insurance may permit people to succumb to a moral hazard by acting recklessly.


Asymmetric information in a lemon s market l.jpg
Asymmetric Information in a Lemon's Market

  • Search goodsare products or services whose quality is best detected through a market search.

  • Experience goodsare products and services whose quality is undetected when purchased.

  • To protect consumers, warranties and firm reputations are used to assure quality.

  • But if someone is selling his or her car, isn't it likely that the car is no good: a lemon?

  • If one firm defrauds customers, how do the reputable firms signal that they are NOT like the fraudulent firm?


Adverse selection and the notorious firm l.jpg
Adverse Selection and the Notorious Firm

  • Game: A firm may decide to produce a High QualityorLow Qualityproduct, and the buyer may decide to offer a High Price or a Low Price.

  • Since the firm fears that if it offers a High Quality product but that buyers only offer a Low Price, they only produce Low Quality products and receive Low Prices.

  • This is the problem of adverse selection


Notorious firm game analysis l.jpg
Notorious Firm Game Analysis

BUYER

  • Simultaneous decisions

  • A risk averse decision by the firm is to make a Low Quality product

  • Best for the buyer is a low price, but a high quality good. Worst is a High price but a Low quality good.

Hi Price Low Price

High

Quality

Low

Quality

130 70

150 90

SELLER

Payoffs are for

the Seller only


Solutions to the problem of adverse selection l.jpg
Solutions to the Problem of Adverse Selection

  • Regulation (Disclosure Laws, Truth in Lending)

  • Long term relationships, or reliance relationships

  • Brand names (a form of a “hostage” to quality)

  • Nonredeployable assets are assets that have little value in another other use

    • Example: Dixie Cups made with paper-cup machinery which cannot be used for other purposes — if Dixie Cups leak, the company is in trouble


Cost revelation in joint ventures and partnerships l.jpg
Cost Revelation in Joint Ventures and Partnerships

  • Potential partners have different information when beginning a venture together

  • The Clarke tax mechanism

    • The mechanism is to assign probabilities to the revelation of costs of the partner.

    • After the other partner's expected costs are covered, they receive the residual or net profit.

    • Then each has an incentive to reveal their true cost.


Optimal incentives contract l.jpg
Optimal Incentives Contract

  • is an agreement about the payoffs and penalties that creates appropriate incentives

  • If the contract creates a stream of profits, then a breach is a costly penalty

    example: an employee who steals is fired! If the employee felt the employment at that firm was rewarding, the penalty of firing is severe.


Principal agent problem in managerial labor markets l.jpg
Principal-Agent Problem in Managerial Labor Markets

  • Stockholders (principals) hire managers (agents) with different incentives.

  • Alternative labor contracts

    • Pay based on profits

    • Paying a bonus on top of a salary when goals are exceeded

    • Have manager own stock

  • Benchmarking involves a comparison of similar firms, plants, or divisions


Signaling and sorting of managerial talent l.jpg
Signaling and Sorting of Managerial Talent

  • Applicants to positions know more about themselves than they reveal, which is the problem of asymmetric information.

  • For example, is the applicant highly risk averse or a risk taker?

  • How can we sort between risk-takers and risk averse candidates?


One sorting method l.jpg
One Sorting Method

  • A Linear Incentive Contract provides a combination of salary and (plus or minus!) a profit sharing rate.

  • An offer that dominates all other offers will not help distinguish among applicants. This is a pooling equilibrium.

  • Offers that distinguishes between behaviors is a separating equilibrium.

  • For example, arisk averseperson would tend to select an offer which primarily paid a base salary

  • Whereas therisk-lovingindividual would tend to select an offer with more profit sharing.


Sorting managers with incentives l.jpg

Contract A has lower profit sharing rate and lower base rate than Contract B

Both the risk averse and the risk lover picks contract B over contract A

A pooling equilibrium

Sorting Managers with Incentives

Indifference

curve for risk

averse person

Base Rate

Salary

Indifference

curve for risk

the risk lover

B

A

Profit Sharing points of equal

profit to the firm

Profit Sharing Rate

in  percentages

Figure 11.4


Sorting managers with incentives17 l.jpg

Contract A has a lower profit sharing rate and a lower base rate than Contract C

However, the risk lover prefers C to A

The risk averse person prefers A to C

A separating equilibrium is offering A or C.

Sorting Managers with Incentives

Indifference

curve for risk

averse person

Base Rate

Salary

Indifference

curve for risk

the risk lover

B

C

A

Profit Sharing Rate

in  percentages

Figure 11.4


ad