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CHRISTOLOGY. Christology from Above Historic, Ecumenical and Creedal Approach Postulates that God, the Second Person, took unto himself true humanity Does not rule out Christology from below. Christology from Below Favorite method of modern theologians

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Approaches to christology

Christology from Above

Historic, Ecumenical and Creedal Approach

Postulates that God, the Second Person, took unto himself true humanity

Does not rule out Christology from below

Christology from Below

Favorite method of modern theologians

Emphasizes humanity of Christ and his complete openness to God

Does not rule out “from above” but infrequently goes there

APPROACHES TO CHRISTOLOGY

Christology


Orthodox christology
ORTHODOX CHRISTOLOGY

  • Christ is God even as the Father is God

  • Christ is Human even as we are, excepting for sin

  • Christ is truly one person

  • God, the SON, took unto himself a true human nature and became the God-Man

Christology


Christ is god
CHRIST IS GOD

  • Old Testament

    • Psalm 2:6-12, “You are my son”

    • Psalm 45:6-7, “Your throne, O God”

    • Psalm 110:1ff, “The LORD says to my Lord”

    • Isaiah 9:6, “The Mighty God”

    • Jeremiah 23:6, “The LORD our Righteousness”

    • Micah 5:2, “from everlasting”

    • Malachi 3:1, “the Lord will come to his temple”

Christology


Christ is god1
CHRIST IS GOD

  • New Testament: Matthew

    • Matthew 9:6, forgives sins

    • Matthew 11:7, complete knowledge of the Father

    • Matthew 14:33, receives worship

    • Matthew 16:16, “Son of God”

    • Matthew 28:18, “All authority”

    • Matthew 28:19, baptismal formula

    • Matthew 7:21, 10:32-3, 11:25-7, “My Father”

Christology


Christ is god2
CHRIST IS GOD

  • New Testament: John

    • John 1:1, “Word was God”

    • John 2:24 “knew what was in man”

    • John 5:18 “making himself equal with God”

    • John 11:1-14, Raising Lazarus from the dead

    • John 20:28, “My Lord and My God”

    • I John 1:3; 2:23; 4:14-5; 5:5, 10-13, 20

Christology


Christ is god3
CHRIST IS GOD

  • New Testament: Other Texts

    • Romans 9:5, “God, over all, blessed”

    • Philippians 2:6, “existed in the form of God”

    • Colossians 2:9, “in him all fullness dwells”

    • Titus 2:13, “the great God and our Savior”

    • Hebrews 1:3, “exact representation of his nature”

    • Hebrews 1:8, “Your throne, O God”

    • Revelation 19:16, “King of Kings, Lord of Lords”

Christology


Christ is human
CHRIST IS HUMAN

  • Genesis 3:15, Seed of the Woman

  • Genesis 49:8-10, Tribe of Judah

  • II Samuel 7, Psalm 89, Family of David

  • Isaiah 7:14, born of a virgin

  • Isaiah 53, to suffer and die

Christology


Christ is human1
CHRIST IS HUMAN

  • Matthew 1, Luke 2, Galatians 4:4, born

  • Luke 2:52, grew in wisdom and stature

  • Hebrews 2:14, had flesh and blood

  • Luke 24:39, had flesh and bone

  • Matthew 24:36, ignorant of the day of judgment

Christology


Definition of chalcedon
DEFINITION OF CHALCEDON

TWO NATURES/ONE CHRIST

Deity

Humanity

Inseparably

Inconfusedly

Unchangeably

Indivisibly

Christology


Key terms
KEY TERMS

Father-Hypostasis, Persona

Son-

Hypostasis,

Persona

One Divine

Substance

(Ousia)

Holy Spirit-

Hypostasis,

Persona

Human

Ousia,

Nature

Divine

Ousia,

Nature

Christology


Humiliation and exaltation
HUMILIATION AND EXALTATION

The Creedal

Cycle

Christology


Humiliation
HUMILIATION

  • He humbled himself, see Phil. 2:7, 8: Kenosis “He laid aside the divine majesty, the majesty of the sovereign Ruler of the universe, and assumed human nature in the form of a servant.” Berkhof, ST, 332.

Christology


Humiliation1
HUMILIATION

  • Incarnation (Gal. 4:4, Isa. 9:6, Heb/ 2:14, Phil. 2:7)

  • Made under the Law (Gal. 4;4, John 6:38, Heb. 5:8, Phil. 2:8)

  • Sufferings and Death (Isa. 53)

  • Wrath of God (II Cor. 5:21, Isa. 53:12, Ps. 40:12, Matt. 27:46)

  • Death and Burial

  • The descent into hell

Christology


Exaltation
EXALTATION

  • Resurrection: John 2:19-21;10:18, 11:25; Acts 2:24, 32; 3:26, 5:30; Rom.6:4; I Cor. 15:20; Col. 1:18; Rev. 1:5

  • Ascension: Mark 16:19; Luke 24:50-53; John 6:62; 14:2,12; 16:5, 10, 17, 28; 17:5; 20:17; Acts 1:6-11; Eph. 1:20; 4:8-10; I Tim. 3:16; Heb. 1:4; 4:14; 9:24

  • Session at the Right Hand of God: Matt. 26:64; Acts 2:33-36; 5:31; Eph.1:20-22; Heb. 10:12; I Peter 3:22; Rev. 3:21; 22:1; Rom. 14:9; I Cor. 15:24-28; Heb. 2:7,8; I John 2:1

  • Judging the World at the Last Day: John 5:22,27; Acts 10:42,17:31; Matt. 19:28; 25:31-34; Luke 3:17; Rom. 2:16; 14:9; I Cor. 3:13-15; II Cor. 5:10; II Tim. 4:1; James 5:9

Christology


Christological errors
CHRISTOLOGICAL ERRORS

Arianism

NOT TRULY GOD

Apollinarianism

NO HUMAN SPIRIT

Christology


Christological errors1
CHRISTOLOGICAL ERRORS

Apollinarianism

NO HUMAN SPIRIT

Nestorianism

TWO PERSONS

Christology


Christological errors2
CHRISTOLOGICAL ERRORS

Nestorianism

Eutychianism

TWO PERSONS

ONE NATURE

Christology


Councils
COUNCILS

  • Nicea, A.D. 325, condemned Arianism as heresy (homoousios)

  • Constantinople, A.D. 381, condemned Apollinarianism as heresy

  • Ephesus, A.D. 431, condemned Nestorianism as heresy

  • Chalcedon, A.D. 451, condemned Eutychianism as heresy

Christology


Definition of chalcedon1
DEFINITION OF CHALCEDON

We, then, following the holy Fathers, all with one consent, teach men to confess one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, the same perfect in Godhead and also perfect in manhood; truly God and truly man, or a reasonable soul and body; consubstantialwith the Father according to the Godhead, and consubstantial with us according to the Manhood; in all things like unto us, without sin; begotten before all ages of the Father according to the Godhead, and in these latter days, for us and for our salvation, born of the Virgin Mary, the Mother of God, according to the Manhood; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, to be acknowledged in two natures inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably; the distinction of natures being by no means taken away by the union, but rather the property of each nature being preserved, and concurring in one Person and one Subsistence not parted or divided into two persons, but one and the same Son, and only begotten, God the Word, the Lord Jesus Christ, as the prophets from the beginning have declared concerning him, and the Lord Jesus Christ himself has taught us, and the Creed of the holy Fathers has handed down to us.

Christology


Impeccabilty
IMPECCABILTY

  • Some argue if Christ were not able to sin, his temptations would not have been real. However

    • The Personality of Christ was that of God, the Logos

    • God cannot be tempted, James 1:13

    • The Scriptures say he was tempted, Heb 2:18, 4:15

Christology


Impeccabilty1
IMPECCABILTY

  • Further:

    • In his human nature, he did not know the outcome of his temptation, Heb. 5:7-10, Matt. 24:36

    • A person with a human nature in its true integrity would be all the more grievously challenged by temptation than one with a sinful nature such as we have.

Christology



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