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Selecting Materials. Product function interdependence Mechanical properties Physical properties Families of materials Materials first screening. Customer Needs. Formulation. Customer requirements Importance weights Eng. characteristics House of Quality Eng. Design Spec’s .

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Presentation Transcript
selecting materials
Selecting Materials
  • Product function interdependence
  • Mechanical properties
  • Physical properties
  • Families of materials
  • Materials first screening
when do we select specific materials

Customer Needs

Formulation

Customer requirements

Importance weights

Eng. characteristics

House of Quality

Eng. Design Spec’s

Concept Design

Abstract embodiment Physical principles

Material

Geometry

?

Configuration Design

When do we select specific materials?

arrangement of parts/features

(i.e. shaping materials)

therefore let s examine

Formulation

Concept Design

manufacturing processes

materials

Configuration Design

Parametric Design

Detail Design

Therefore, let’s examine…
interdependence compatibility
Interdependence - compatibility

Material

Properties

Manufacturing

Processes

compatible

materials & processes

interdependence capability
Interdependence - capability

capable processes

for the geometry

Manufacturing

Processes

Product

Geometry

product function is interdependent
Product function is interdependent

Material

Properties

Product

Function

Manufacturing

Processes

Product

Geometry

example
Example

Design a support for the electric motor

Tekniker-ILL neutron monochromator

example8
Example

Tekniker-ILL neutron monochromator

example9
Example

Tekniker-ILL neutron monochromator

example10
Example

Tekniker-ILL neutron monochromator

material properties
Material properties
  • Mechanical properties

quantities that characterize the

behavior of a material in response to

external, or applied forces

  • Physical properties

quantities that characterize the

behavior of a material in response to

physical phenomena other than mechanical forces …(e.g. such as heat, electricity, radiation)

mechanical properties

ductile ?

brittle

elastic plastic

Mechanical properties

stiffness ?

Strength = stress at failure = (failure)

material families sub families

Materials

Metals

Plastics

Ceramics

Composites

Family

(Ashby)

Ferrous

Thermoplastics

Thermosets

Non-ferrous

Sub-family

Elastomers

Material families / sub-families
material sub families classes

Family

Sub-family

Classes

Material sub-families / classes

Materials

Metals

Ferrous

Cast iron

Carbon steel

Alloy steel

Stainless steel

metals
Metals

Metals

Ferrous

Non-ferrous

cast iron

carbon steel

alloy steel

stainless steel

aluminum

brass

bronze

copper

lead

magnesium

nickel

tin

titanium

tungsten

zinc

polymers

Polymers

Thermoplastics

Thermosets

Elastomers

ABS

acetal

acrylic

nylon

polycarbonate

polyethylene

polypropylene

polystyrene

vinyl

alkyd

epoxy

melamine

phenolic

polyester

urethane

butyl

fluorocarbon

neoprene

nitrile

polysulfide

rubber

silicone

Natural and synthetic rubbers

Polymers
polymers20
Polymers

No chemical reaction

Cross-linking

ceramics

Ceramics

alumina

beryllia

diamond

magnesia

silicon carbide

silicon nitride

zirconia

Ceramics
composites

Composites

carbon fiber

ceramic matrix

glass fiber

Kevlar

metal matrix

Composites
composites23
Composites

Manufacturing process

Carbon fiber Style 282 bidirectional.

Araldite epoxy resin with HY956 additive.

composites24
Composites

College Park Foot

Otto Bock Advantage

Ossur Flexwalk

Pie protésico dinámico2004

Pie protésico dinámico2005

composites25
Composites

Marlon

Shirley

Ossur

Cheeta

Flex-Foot

Cameron

Clapp

Otto Bock

C-Leg

Date of birth: April 21, 1978 Hometown: Thatcher, Utah Current Home:San Diego, CA

Date of birth: Sep 15, 1986

materials selection
Materials selection

prospective

materials and processes

rejected

materials and processes

functional?

manufacturable?

screening

feasible

materials and

processes

relative

performance?

rating

best

material(s) and processes

screening how do we choose a material
Screening: How do we choose a material?

Product function depends upon…

material, manufacturing process, geometry

We have to consider all three

  • Do we select a few feasible materials first…

then select the specific mfg process?

or

  • Do we select a few feasible mfg processes…

then select the specific material?

screening materials first approach
Screening: Materials first approach

Application Information

  • Applied loads

magnitude

cyclic nature (steady, fatigue)

rate (slow, impact)

duration (creep)

  • Ambient conditions

temperature

moisture

sunlight

chemical liquids/vapors

  • Safety
  • Cost
screening manufact process first approach
Screening: Manufact process first approach
  • Part Information
  • Production volume
  • Part size (overall)
  • Shape capability (features)
      • boss/depression 1D
      • boss/depression >1D
      • holes
      • undercuts (internal/external)
      • uniform walls
      • cross sections (uniform /regular)
      • rotational symmetry
      • captured cavities
materials selection31
Materials selection

prospective

materials and processes

rejected

materials and processes

functional?

manufacturable?

screening

feasible

materials and

processes

relative

performance?

rating

best

material(s) and processes

rating material indices
Rating: Material indices
  • Given the same cost/volume… which is stronger?

index = Strength/cost

  • Given the same cost/volume… which is stiffer?

index = Young’s modulus/cost

ashby chart
AshbyChart

How can we use it?

summary
Summary
  • Product function interdependence
  • Mechanical properties
  • Physical properties
  • Families, sub, classes of materials
  • Ashby charts
  • Materials first approach
  • Process first approach
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