Slowly poisoned health consequences of pollution and environmental toxins
Download
1 / 136

Slowly poisoned: health consequences of pollution and environmental toxins - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 444 Views
  • Uploaded on

Slowly poisoned: health consequences of pollution and environmental toxins. Martin Donohoe, MD, FACP Portland State University Campaign for Safe Foods, Oregon Physicians for Social Responsibility. Overview. Public health approach Air pollution Garbage Toxins Education/Corporate Influence

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Slowly poisoned: health consequences of pollution and environmental toxins ' - Melvin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Slowly poisoned health consequences of pollution and environmental toxins l.jpg

Slowly poisoned: health consequences of pollution and environmental toxins

Martin Donohoe, MD, FACP

Portland State University

Campaign for Safe Foods, Oregon Physicians for Social Responsibility


Overview l.jpg
Overview environmental toxins

  • Public health approach

  • Air pollution

  • Garbage

  • Toxins

  • Education/Corporate Influence

  • Progress and Solutions


Some major sources of air pollution l.jpg
Some Major Sources of Air Pollution environmental toxins

  • Industry - #1

  • Agriculture

  • Automobiles

  • Indoor combustion of coal and biomass for cooking, heating and food preservation


Air pollution l.jpg
Air Pollution environmental toxins


Air pollution5 l.jpg
Air Pollution environmental toxins


Air pollution6 l.jpg
Air Pollution environmental toxins

  • Top ten most polluted cities in the world are in China and India

  • Most polluted areas in US:

    • LA, Houston, San Joaquin Valley in Central California, Pittsburgh


Health effects of air pollution l.jpg
Health Effects of Air Pollution environmental toxins

  • Causes approximately 60,000 - 75,000 premature deaths/yr. in U.S. (656,000 in China)

    • More than are killed by auto accidents

  • 1.8 million worldwide


Health effects of air pollution8 l.jpg
Health Effects of Air Pollution environmental toxins

  • Air pollution causes asthma and impairs lung development and function

  • Deaths from cardiopulmonary diseases correlate with air pollution levels in US cities

    • Both day to day and over time


Health effects of air pollution9 l.jpg
Health Effects of Air Pollution environmental toxins

  • Increased admissions for CHF, asthma, COPD, PVD, and cerebrovascular disease (stroke and TIA)

  • Increased lung cancer mortality

  • Decreased exercise tolerance, increased pulmonary symptoms


Health effects of air pollution10 l.jpg
Health Effects of Air Pollution environmental toxins

  • Increased risk of DVT

  • Impaired sperm production

  • Increase in SGA and LBW infants

  • Increased risk of appendicitis

    • ?Via link with inflammation?

  • Increased numbers of migraines


Effects of ozone destruction l.jpg
Effects of Ozone Destruction environmental toxins

  • Ozone hole over Antarctic (2½X size of Europe)

  • Increased cataracts (UV damage)

  • Increased lifetime melanoma risk

    • 1/1500 - 1930

    • 1/68 - today


Automobiles l.jpg
Automobiles environmental toxins


Automobiles14 l.jpg
Automobiles environmental toxins

  • Number of autos-US: 1 car/2 people-Mexico: 1/8-China: 1/100 (increasing; leaded gasoline)

  • Global auto population to double in 25-50 years


Automobiles15 l.jpg
Automobiles environmental toxins

  • Average miles traveled/car/year in U.S.

    • 1965 - 4,570 mi.

    • 1975 - 6,150 mi.

    • 1985 - 7,460 mi.

    • 1995 - 9,220 mi.

    • 2008 – 12,000 mi.


Automobiles16 l.jpg
Automobiles environmental toxins

  • 25 lbs. of CO2 produced for every gallon of gasoline manufactured, distributed, and then burned in a vehicle

  • U.S. energy costs exceed $500 billion/yr. (plus military costs to keep foreign oil flowing)


Automobiles17 l.jpg
Automobiles environmental toxins

  • Average fuel efficiency of U.S. autos stagnant

    • Ford Model T – 25 mpg (1908); Avg. Ford vehicle – 22.6 mpg (2003)

    • Cars: 27.5 mpg required by 2011, 37.5 mpg required by 2015

    • Light trucks / SUVs: 23.5 mpg by 2011, 28.6 mpg by 2015

    • European and Japanese standards higher


Automobiles alternatives l.jpg
Automobiles: Alternatives environmental toxins

  • Relatively low oil prices (until recently)

  • Growing market (until recently) for low-efficiency pickups, minivans, and SUVs

  • Rapid transit

  • Electric cars

    • killed by oil companies, automakers, tire manufacturers in early 20th century

    • Convicted under Sherman Antitrust Act


Automobiles alternatives19 l.jpg
Automobiles: Alternatives environmental toxins

  • Car sharing

  • Pay-as-you-drive auto insurance

  • “Peak Pricing” and “Congestion Fees”

    • E.g., London → 21% decrease in traffic, 43% increase in bus ridership, cleaner air

  • Bicycles/walking

    • 30% of all trips by bike in Amsterdam; 2% in Portland, OR


Automobiles alternatives20 l.jpg
Automobiles: Alternatives environmental toxins

  • Busses

  • Trains

    • 15 x more efficient per passenger than autos

  • Natural gas and/or gasohol-generate less CO2


Automobiles alternatives21 l.jpg
Automobiles: Alternatives environmental toxins

  • Telecommuting

  • Biodiesel

    • Vegetable oil-based fuel

    • Problem: Cheapest biodiesel is oil from palm trees; Indonesia, Malaysia deforesting areas to plant palm trees, leading to increase in global CO2


Automobiles alternatives22 l.jpg
Automobiles: Alternatives environmental toxins

  • Solar cars

  • Hydrogen-powered cars

    • Byproduct = water

    • Problem: Hydrogen production requires fossil fuels


Energy spending research l.jpg
Energy Spending/Research environmental toxins

  • Since 1947, the U.S. has spent $145 billion on nuclear R and D vs. $5 billion on renewables R and D

  • < 5% of the DOE’s budget pays for energy efficiency and renewables

  • BP invests $100 million annually in clean energy = amt. it spends annually to market its new name and environmentally-friendly image of moving “Beyond Petroleum”


Garbage l.jpg
Garbage environmental toxins

  • 98% of the country’s total refuse is industrial waste; 2% municipal waste

  • American produce 4.4 lbs/d garbage

  • In a lifetime, the average American will throw away 6500 times his/her adult weight in garbage


Garbage25 l.jpg
Garbage environmental toxins

  • In one year, Americans generate 236 million tons of garbage

    • 30% recycled

    • 164 million tons thrown away


U s garbage composition l.jpg
U.S. Garbage Composition environmental toxins

  • Paper and Paperboard - 39%

  • Yard Waste - 13%

  • Food Waste - 10%

  • Plastics - 12%

  • Metals - 8%

  • Glass - 6%

  • Wood - 5%


U s recycling rates l.jpg
U.S. Recycling Rates environmental toxins

  • Tires - 22%

  • Plastic containers - 25%

  • Overall plastics – 5%

  • Glass containers - 28%

  • Yard waste - 41%

  • Paper and Paperboard - 42%

  • Aluminum packaging - 54%

  • Steel cans - 60%

  • Auto batteries - 93%


Garbage28 l.jpg
Garbage environmental toxins

  • Landfills (2300 in US)

  • Incinerators

  • Garbage exports


Toxins l.jpg
Toxins environmental toxins


Annual world production of synthetic organic chemicals l.jpg
Annual World Production of Synthetic Organic Chemicals environmental toxins

  • 1930 - 1 million tons

  • 1950 - 7 million tons

  • 1970 - 63 million tons

  • 1990 - 500 million tons

  • 2000 - 1 billion tons


Toxins31 l.jpg
Toxins environmental toxins

  • 6 trillion tons of over 85,000 chemicals produced annually

    • more than 90% have never been screened for toxicity

  • Chemical manufacturers are not required to prove safety

    • the legal burden is on the government to prove that a product is dangerous

    • Consequence of 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act

    • Consumer Product Safety Commission has failed in its regulatory responsibilities


Toxic pollutants l.jpg
Toxic Pollutants environmental toxins

  • 85,000 known or suspected hazardous waste sites in the U.S.

    • Plus up to 600,000 lightly contaminated former industrial sites (“brownfields”)

  • EPA estimates that there will be 217,000 new hazardous waste sites by 2033

    • Will cost hundreds of billions of dollars to mitigate environmental impacts


Toxic pollutants33 l.jpg
Toxic Pollutants environmental toxins

  • 1 in 4 U.S. citizens lives within 4 mile of a Superfund site (approximately 1,305 sites listed; another 2,500 sites eligible)

  • Taxpayers paying increasing share of cleanup costs

    • 54% in 2003

    • Vast majority presently

    • Overall funding decreasing


Toxins34 l.jpg
Toxins environmental toxins

  • Body burden of industrial chemicals, pollutants and pesticides high

    • Environmental Working Group (2004)found 287 pesticides, consumer product ingredients, and wastes from burning coal, gasoline, and garbage in umbilical cord blood

      • Many other compounds not even tested; numbers undoubtedly higher


Fetuses and children are most vulnerable to toxins l.jpg
Fetuses and Children are Most Vulnerable to Toxins environmental toxins

  • Greater pound-for-pound exposure

  • Immature, porous blood brain barrier

  • Lower levels of chemical binding proteins, allowing more chemicals to reach “target” organs


Fetuses and children are most vulnerable to toxins36 l.jpg
Fetuses and Children are Most Vulnerable to Toxins environmental toxins

  • Organs/organ systems rapidly developing, thus more vulnerable to damage

  • Systems that detoxify and excrete industrial chemicals are not fully developed

  • Longer future life span allows more time for adverse effects to arise


Toxins in breast milk l.jpg
Toxins in breast milk environmental toxins

  • Human babies at the top of the food chain

  • Fat soluble toxins concentrated in breast milk

    • Benefits of breast feeding still exceed risks

  • Birth defects, learning disabilities increasing

    • Toxins play important role


Toxins and gender l.jpg
Toxins and gender environmental toxins

  • Sex ratio changing:

    • Normal = 105 boys/girls born (skewed by early male mortality)

    • Fewer boys being born in industrialized countries

      • Other causes include obesity, older parental age, stress, fertility aides


Pesticides l.jpg
Pesticides environmental toxins

  • 2.2 billion lbs/yr pesticides

    • Including agricultural pesticides, wood preservatives, and disinfectants

    • 8.8 lbs/person/yr in US


Pesticides40 l.jpg
Pesticides environmental toxins

  • EPA estimates U.S. farm workers suffer up to 300,000 pesticide-related acute illnesses and injuries per year

    • Possibly linked to higher rates of sarcoidosis in agricultural workers

    • Pesticide-exposed men have impaired semen quality, which is associated with reduced fertility and testicular cancer


Pesticides41 l.jpg
Pesticides environmental toxins

  • NAS estimates that pesticides in food could cause up to 1 million cancers in the current generation of Americans

  • Linked to autism, Parkinson’s Disease, diabetes, obesity (with prenatal exposure), depression

  • Children living on or near farms score 5 points lower on IQ tests and other mental and verbal tests

    • May be due to pesticide exposure


Anthropological study of children exposed to pesticides l.jpg
Anthropological Study of Children Exposed to Pesticides environmental toxins

Children from villages practicing organic agriculture

Children from villages practicing non-organic agriculture


Pesticides43 l.jpg
Pesticides environmental toxins

  • 1,000,000 people killed by pesticides over the last 6 years (WHO)

  • US health and environmental costs $12 billion/yr (2005)


Pesticides44 l.jpg
Pesticides environmental toxins

  • CA and NY are the only states currently tracking pesticide sales and use

  • 2008: USDA axes national survey charting pesticide use

  • EPA, NAS currently allows pesticide testing in humans, despite strong opposition


Pesticides45 l.jpg
Pesticides environmental toxins


Pesticides47 l.jpg
Pesticides environmental toxins

  • $2.4 billion worth of insecticides and fungicides sold to American farmers each year

  • Pesticide runoff contributes to coastal dead zones

    • Baltic Sea, Mouth of Mississippi in Gulf of Mexico

    • Red tides

  • Pesticides inhibit nitrogen fixation, decrease crop yields


Pesticides48 l.jpg
Pesticides environmental toxins

  • Evidence suggests that pesticides promote pests (vs. natural pesticides)

    • 30% of medieval crop harvests were destroyed by pests vs. 35-42% of current crop harvests

  • Implies organic farming more cost-effective


Pesticides and produce l.jpg
Pesticides and Produce environmental toxins

  • The Dirty Dozen: peaches, apples, bell peppers, celery, nectarines, strawberries, cherries, kale, lettuce, grapes (imported), carrots, pears

  • The Clean 15: onions, avocados, sweet corn, pineapples, mangos, asparagus, sweet peas, kiwis, cabbages, eggplant, papayas, watermelon, broccoli, tomatoes, sweet potatoes


Slide50 l.jpg
Lead environmental toxins

  • 2 million US children with elevated levels

  • 120 million people with level > 10mcg/dL worldwide

    • Due to increased environmental exposure and, possibly, early umbilical cord clamping

  • #s affected dropping


Slide51 l.jpg
Lead environmental toxins

  • Affects brain development, associated with lower IQ

    • No safe level for neurological development

  • Levels between 4 and 10 significantly increase risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease

  • Elevated levels associated with crime and violent behavior

  • Poor, African-Americans more commonly exposed


Lead poisoning s s dx and rx l.jpg
Lead Poisoning: S/S, DX, and RX environmental toxins

  • S/S: AP, CP, arthralgias, myalgias, HA, anorexia, ↓libido, ↓memory, anemia, nephropathy, HTN, cataracts, CV dz, cancer, ↓sperm count, lead line on teeth, basophilic stipling

  • Dx: lead level, FEP (free erythrocyte protoporphyrin)

  • Rx: ↓exposure, CsEDTA, DMSA


Toxic pollutants economic costs l.jpg
Toxic Pollutants – Economic Costs environmental toxins

  • Birth defects, learning disabilities increasing

    • Toxins play important role

  • Americans pay more than $55 billion annually for direct medical expenses plus special schooling and long-term care for pediatric diseases caused by lead

  • This excludes the greatest toxic pollutant - tobacco


Mercury l.jpg
Mercury environmental toxins

  • Released into air by coal combustion, industrial processes, mining, and waste disposal

    • 4500 tons/yr

  • Travels throughout atmosphere and settles in oceans and waterways

  • Bacteria convert it to toxic methyl-mercury

  • Travels up food chain via fish


Mercury55 l.jpg
Mercury environmental toxins

  • ↓ coal burning

  • New EPA ruling ineffective:

    • allows cap-and-trade of power plant emissions

    • Removes power plants from list of pollution sources subject to federal Clean Air Act


Mercury56 l.jpg
Mercury environmental toxins

  • 16% of women of childbearing age exceed the EPA’s “safe” mercury level

  • Freshwater fish mercury levels too high for pregnant women to eat in 43 states

  • Mercury dental amalgams pose health risks to pregnant women, unborn babies, and children (FDA)

  • Contaminant in high fructose corn syrup


Mercury s s dx and rx l.jpg
Mercury: S/S, Dx, and Rx environmental toxins

  • S/S: neuropsychiatric symptoms, inflammation of gums with excessive salivation, rash, nephropathy

    • Linked to autism

  • Dx: mercury levels in air, blood, urine (>100 mcg/l in blood and/or urine = toxic)

  • Rx: chelation with BAL, penicillamine, DMPS, DMSA


Arsenic l.jpg
Arsenic environmental toxins

  • Contaminates groundwater in Bangladesh, also, India, China, Mexico, Argentina, Thailand, and parts of the U.S.

    • 13 million Americans have drinking water exceeding EPA’s “safe level”

    • Exposure also via seafood

  • Used to pressure treat wood in US and elsewhere


Health consequences of arsenic exposure l.jpg
Health Consequences of Arsenic Exposure environmental toxins

  • Pigmentary skin changes

  • Diabetes

  • Increased risk of lung, bladder, and skin cancers

  • Lead, mercury, or arsenic found in 1/5 of both U.S.- and India-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines purchased via the internet


Manganese cadmuim l.jpg
Manganese/Cadmuim environmental toxins

  • Manganese:

    • Welders exposed via fumes

    • Causes “manganism” (like Parkinson’s Disease)

    • Welding companies covered up link for decades (like lead paint, etc.)

  • Cadmium

    • Osteoporosis, periodontal disease


Cell phones l.jpg
Cell phones environmental toxins

  • ?Link to parotid gland tumors?

  • ?Link to brain tumors?

    • Gliomas?

    • Acoustic neuromas?

  • Precautionary principle – hands-free headset

    • ?Other safety benefits?


Toxic pollutants62 l.jpg
Toxic Pollutants environmental toxins

  • Dioxin - from manufacturing, medical incinerators, defoliants (“Agent Orange”)-Love Canal

    -cancers

  • Nitrates/nitrites, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, ozone

  • PFOA (Teflon): multiple health effects; being phased out by Dupont


Hazardous waste and fertilizer l.jpg
Hazardous Waste and Fertilizer environmental toxins

  • Legal to dispose of hazardous waste by turning it into fertilizer

  • e.g. Uranium-laced fertilizer in Oklahoma, lead-laced fertilizer in SW Wash., other mixtures containing arsenic, cadmium and dioxins

  • Unclear if a health hazard

  • No requirement that toxins be listed on ingredient labels


Persistent organic pollutants l.jpg
Persistent Organic Pollutants environmental toxins

  • Toxic, remain in environment long-term, resist degradation, can travel long distances

  • Bioaccumulate - higher concentrations as you move up the food chain


Persistent organic pollutants65 l.jpg
Persistent Organic Pollutants environmental toxins

  • 10 of the these are endocrine disrupters

    • egs. - DDT, chlordane, heptachlor, dioxins, PCBs

    • possible cause of decreasing male sperm counts (100 million/ejaculate in 1950, 50 million in 1990) and increasing cases of hypospadias. early puberty, and breast cancer

    • Cases of hypospadias doubled in U.S. between late 1960s and early 1990s


Endocrine disruptors l.jpg
Endocrine Disruptors environmental toxins

  • Linked to:

    • Obesity

    • Insulin resistance

    • Diabetes

    • PCOS, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, premature ovarian failure

    • Male and female reproductive tract abnormalities


Endocrine disruptors67 l.jpg
Endocrine Disruptors environmental toxins

  • Linked to:

    • Impaired fertility

    • Low birth weight, impaired fetal development and fetal anomalies

    • Multiple cancers (including breast, colon, prostate, testicular)

    • Thyroid disease

    • Neuroendocrine abnormalities


Toxic pollutants and dna l.jpg
Toxic Pollutants and DNA environmental toxins

  • Toxins can damage DNA

  • New evidence from rats of epigenetic transgenerational effects of endocrine disruptors on male fertility in rats

  • In 1938, 0.5% of men were functionally sterile

    • 8-12% in 2006


Pesticides and other toxins linked to neurological disease l.jpg
Pesticides and Other Toxins Linked to Neurological Disease environmental toxins

  • Parkinson’s Disease

  • Autism

  • Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Others


Phthalates bisphenol a l.jpg
Phthalates/Bisphenol A environmental toxins

  • Found in construction materials, clothing, toys, cosmetics, pills, added to PVCs in IV tubing/other plastics

  • 5 million metric tons consumed by industry per year (13% in the U.S.)

  • Exxon Mobil and BASF dominate the market


Phthalates bisphenol a71 l.jpg
Phthalates/Bisphenol A environmental toxins

  • Wal-Mart, Target, Toys ‘R’ Us phasing out, San Francisco, California, Europe, and Canada have banned phthalates

  • MN and Suffolk County, NY have banned BPA

  • Consumer Product Safety Commission reforms of 2008 will eliminate lead and phthalates from toys and children’s products


Phthalates l.jpg
Phthalates environmental toxins

  • 90% of government-funded studies found adverse health effects

    • vs. 0% of industry-funded studies

  • Associated with:

    • demasculinization and alterations in genitalia in male infants

    • lower testosterone levels

    • lower sperm counts in adults

    • Low birth weight

    • obesity


Phthalates pvcs and medical devices l.jpg
Phthalates/PVCs and Medical Devices environmental toxins

  • EPA regulations weak, based on 50-year old study

  • FDA has advised healthcare providers to use alternatives to DEHP-containing PVC medical devices, esp. in neonatal units

  • Banned by EU, CA, and WA

    • Federal legislation pending


Teflon pfoa perfluorooctanate l.jpg
Teflon (PFOA – perfluorooctanate) environmental toxins

  • Non-stick material made by Dupont

  • Chemicals released under high heat and when cookware damaged

  • Exposure linked with cancer, birth defects, and liver damage

  • Dupont hit with largest-ever civil penalty ($10.25 million) in 2006 for concealing health consequences and transmission from mother to fetus


Environmental racism and toxic imperialism l.jpg
Environmental Racism environmental toxinsand Toxic Imperialism

  • Environmental Racism

    • waste dumps/incinerators more common in lower SES neighborhoods

    • “Cancer Belt” (Baton Rogue to New Orleans)

    • “White residential neighborhoods” - 1.7 acres parkland/1000 residents

    • “African-American neighborhoods” - 0.3

  • Toxic Imperialism


Mining and pollution gold l.jpg
Mining and Pollution: Gold environmental toxins

  • Cyanide “heap leach” gold mining

    • cyanide dripped over crushed rock to extract gold

    • taxpayers often stuck with cleanup costs


Mining and pollution gold77 l.jpg
Mining and Pollution: Gold environmental toxins

  • International gold mining linked to human rights abuses

  • 84% of gold becomes jewelry

    • To save the environment, consider not buying gold jewelry


Should i send flowers l.jpg
Should I Send Flowers? environmental toxins

  • Most commercial flowers grown in sealed greenhouses in developing countries (e.g., Colombia, India China, Mexico)

  • Carry 50 times the amount of pesticides allowed on food

    • One fifth of chemicals used banned in U.S.

  • Workers underpaid, 50-60% suffer from pesticide poisoning


Electronic waste l.jpg
Electronic Waste environmental toxins

  • Only 5-10% of computers recycled

  • Most sent overseas, children disassemble

    • Some returns to U.S. in children’s jewelry

  • EU now requires electronics firms to recycle and to eliminate lead, cadmium and mercury from their products

  • Dell, www.computertakeback.com


Electronic waste80 l.jpg
Electronic Waste environmental toxins

  • European laws re extended producer responsibility and product liability

    • Similar San Francisco resolution

  • Maine passed first law requiring elctronic manufacturers to pay for recycling their discarded products


Medical waste l.jpg
Medical Waste environmental toxins

  • The 6,000 US hospitals generate 2 million tons of waste per year; clinics and doctors’ offices an additional 700,000 tons

  • 850,000 tons incinerated

    • 15% infectious waste

    • incinerated pollutants include dioxin, mercury, cadmium and lead


Medical waste82 l.jpg
Medical Waste environmental toxins

  • One hospital bed generates between 16 and 23 lbs/day of waste

  • Outbreak of hepatitis B in India due to black market in medical waste and supplies (2009)


Medical waste83 l.jpg
Medical Waste environmental toxins

  • Solutions:

    • Strengthen EPA regulations

    • Segregation and alternatives to incineration would cost < $1/patient/day 80% of thermometers no longer contain mercury

    • Remove PVCs from medical supplies (e.g., IV tubing)


Medical waste84 l.jpg
Medical Waste environmental toxins

  • Organizations:

    • Health Care Without Harm

    • Green Health Center Movement

  • NAS: Hospitals built and operated on more environmentally sound principles save money and produce better patient outcomes


Water pollution l.jpg
Water Pollution environmental toxins

  • 40% of U.S. waters are unfit for fishing or swimming

    • beach closings

  • The Jordan River (believed to be the gateway to the Garden of Eden and the place where Jesus was baptized) is now more than 50% raw sewage and agricultural runoff


Willamette river l.jpg
Willamette River environmental toxins

  • One of the most polluted rivers in the American West

    • Arsenic, lead, mercury, DDT

  • 5.5 mile stretch Superfund site

  • Current law allows polluters to calculate discharges using “toxic mixing zones” to get around limits on discharges


Water l.jpg
Water environmental toxins

  • In developing countries, 90-95% of sewage and 70% of industrial wastes are dumped untreated into the local water supply

  • 13,000-15,000 deaths per day worldwide from water-related diseases

  • 4/10 people worldwide have no access to any latrine, toilet, bucket or box


Water pollution bathtub toilet source of drinking water l.jpg
Water Pollution: environmental toxinsBathtub=Toilet=Source of Drinking Water


Infamous industrial disasters l.jpg
Infamous Industrial Disasters environmental toxins

  • Minimata, Japan, 1920s-1970s (Chisso Corporation) - methylmercury poisoning -400 dead; 10,000 injured

  • Bhopal, India, 1984 (Union Carbide, purchased by Dow in 2001) - methyl isocyanate gas

    • 7000-10,000 dead within 3 days, 15,000-20,000 more over next 10 years; tens of thousands injured

    • persistent water and soil contamination


Minimata disease w eugene smith l.jpg
Minimata Disease environmental toxinsW Eugene Smith


Infamous industrial disasters91 l.jpg
Infamous Industrial Disasters environmental toxins

  • Chernobyl, USSR, 1986 - nuclear power plant explosion

    -25-100 dead, up to 1,000 injured acutely, NCI estimates 10-75K thyroid cancers

  • Alaska, Exxon Valdez, 1989 - oil spill-wildlife devastated, $5 billion damage

  • 2006 BP Alaskan pipeline ruptures


Since exxon valdez l.jpg
Since Exxon Valdez environmental toxins

  • At least 1.1 million tons of oil have spilled from tankers worldwide

    • Equivalent to 30 Valdez incidents



Oil slicks kill marine life l.jpg
Oil Slicks Kill Marine Life environmental toxins


Infamous industrial disasters95 l.jpg
Infamous Industrial Disasters environmental toxins

  • Love Canal:

    • Hooker Electrochemical Company (parent company Occidental Petroleum) dumps over 21,000 tons of chemical waste in 1940s and 1950s

    • Miscarriages, birth defects, cancers

    • Occidental found liable


Infamous industrial disasters96 l.jpg
Infamous Industrial Disasters environmental toxins

  • Leads to Superfund Law

  • Today only seven states prohibit construction of schools on or near hazardous waste sites

    • Half-million children attend schools within ½ mile of toxic waste dumps in NY, NJ, MA< and MI alone


The military and pollution l.jpg
The Military and Pollution environmental toxins

  • World’s single largest polluter

  • 6-10% of global air pollution

  • 2-11% of world raw material use


The military and pollution98 l.jpg
The Military and Pollution environmental toxins

  • 97% of all high level and 78% of all low level nuclear waste

    • 1054 U.S. nuclear tests since 1940s, 331 in atmosphere

    • 104 U.S. nuclear reactors

    • More than 210 million liters of radioactive and chemical waste stored at Hanford, WA

      • Site plagued by leaks


The military and pollution99 l.jpg
The Military and Pollution environmental toxins

  • Pentagon generates 750,000 tons hazardous waste/year

  • Numerous toxic waste sites

  • Exempt from most environmental regulations


The military and pollution100 l.jpg
The Military and Pollution environmental toxins

  • “The more birds that the [Department of Defense] kill[s], the more enjoyment [people] will get from seeing the ones that remain: ‘Bird watchers get more enjoyment spotting a rare bird than they do spotting a common one.’”

    • 2002 court summary of the U.S. Defense Department’s argument for exemption from the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918


The military l.jpg
The Military environmental toxins

  • Small arms and rocket propelled grenades

  • Land mines

  • Nuclear, chemical and biological weapons


Military waste l.jpg
Military Waste environmental toxins

  • More than 27,000 toxic hot spots at the pentagon’s 8,500 properties

    • less than 400 toxic waste dumps have been cleaned up

    • costs to clean - immense: likely never to be completed

  • Military exempt from most environmental regulations


Worrisome trends l.jpg
Worrisome Trends environmental toxins

  • GATT

  • NAFTA

  • CAFTA

  • Other trade agreements


Slapp slapp back l.jpg
SLAPP/SLAPP-Back environmental toxins

  • Strategic Lawsuits Against Private Parties/ Countersuits

  • SLAPPs- designed to harass environmental groups, deplete their financial resources through threatened or actual litigation


Politics bush administration l.jpg
Politics: Bush Administration environmental toxins

  • Key administrators/committee members/regulators former industry representatives and/or lobbyists

  • Corporate profit before public good

  • Unsound/distorted/suppressed science

  • Eco-harassment

    • Criminalizing activists


Bush administration l.jpg
Bush Administration environmental toxins

  • Rollbacks of key environmental laws

  • Lax enforcement of existing laws

  • Huge tax cuts primarily benefit wealthy

  • Federal and state government deficits astronomical

    • Program and funding cuts


Would you sign a petition to ban dihydrogen monoxide l.jpg
Would You Sign a Petition to Ban Dihydrogen Monoxide? environmental toxins

1. It can cause excessive sweating and vomiting2. It is a major component in acid rain3. It can cause severe burns in its gaseous state4. It can kill you if accidentally inhaled5. It contributes to erosion6. It decreases effectiveness of automobile brakes7. It has been found in tumors of terminal cancer patients


Environmental ignorance l.jpg
Environmental Ignorance environmental toxins

  • A majority of Americans believe that electricity in the U.S. is produced in nonpolluting ways

    • 25% knew that majority (70%) comes from oil, coal and wood

  • 1/3 assumed that spent nuclear fuel (from our 104 plants) is stored “in a deep underground facility in the West”

    • Only 17% were aware that it is mostly stored on-site at powerplants pending a long-term solution (30,000/tons)


Pseudoscientific beliefs l.jpg
Pseudoscientific Beliefs environmental toxins

Percentage of Americans who believe “at least to some degree” in these “phenomena”

1997 1976

  • Astrology 37% 17%

  • UFOs 30% 24%

  • Reincarnation 25% 9%

  • Fortune-Telling 14% 4%


Greenwash l.jpg
Greenwash environmental toxins

  • Public relations / ad campaigns-Chevron’s “People Do” Campaign, butterflies/refinery-Dupont Freon Campaign in 1970’s-Grants to a few scientists who challenge environmental warnings-tobacco ads in 1950’s


Astroturf and corporate front groups l.jpg
Astroturf and Corporate Front Groups environmental toxins

  • Artificially-created grassroots coalitions

  • Corporate front groups

    • The American Council on Science and Health

    • The Oregon Lands Coalition

    • National Wilderness Institute

    • The Foundation for Clean Air Progress


Corporate pr tactics l.jpg
Corporate PR tactics environmental toxins

  • Invoke poor people as beneficiaries

  • Characterize opposition as “technophobic,” anti-science,” and “against progress”

  • Portray their products as environmentally beneficial in the absence of (or despite the) evidence


Sponsored environmental educational materials l.jpg
Sponsored Environmental environmental toxinsEducational Materials

  • Corporate-sponsored and supported by a loose coalition of antiregulatory zealots, corporate polluters, lapdog scientists and misguided parents


Sponsored environmental education materials examples l.jpg
Sponsored Environmental environmental toxinsEducation Materials (Examples)

  • Exxon’s “Energy Cube”

    -“Gasoline is simply solar power hidden in decayed matter”

    -“Offshore drilling creates reefs for fish”

  • Pacific Lumber Company

    -“The Great American Forest is. . . renewable forever”


Sponsored environmental education materials examples117 l.jpg
Sponsored Environmental environmental toxinsEducation Materials (Examples)

  • International Paper

    -“Clearcutting promotes growth of trees that require full sunlight and allows efficient site preparation for the next crop”

  • American Nuclear Society’s “Activities with the Atoms Family”

  • Dow’s “Chemipalooza”


Slide118 l.jpg

“Doubt is our product” environmental toxins

Brown and Williamson Tobacco Company Memo, 1960s


Slide119 l.jpg

Progress and Solutions environmental toxins


The benefits of sterility causing chemicals in the workplace l.jpg
The “Benefits” of Sterility-Causing Chemicals in the Workplace?

12 September 1977

Dr. Eula Bingham, Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health [Regarding] worker exposure to DBCP. While involuntary sterility caused by a manufactured chemical may be bad, it is not necessarily so. After all, there are many people who are now paying to have themselves sterilized to assure they will no longer be able to become parents... If possible sterility is the main problem, couldn’t workers who were old enough that they no longer wanted to have children accept such positions voluntarily? Or…some [workers] might volunteer for such workposts as an alternative to planned surgery for a vasectomy or tubal ligation, or as a means of getting around religious bans on birth control when they want no more children?

Sincerely,

Robert K. Phillips, National Peach Council


Environmental success story the montreal protocol 1987 l.jpg
Environmental Success Story Workplace?The Montreal Protocol (1987)

  • Phaseout of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by 1996

  • Developed in 1920s; the chief working fluid in refrigerators, aerosol spray cans, insulating foams, and industrial solvents and cleaning agents

    -1 million tons/year manufactured in 1970s

    -major cause of Antarctic and Arctic ozone holes

    -should disappear by 2060

    -current substitute, HCFCs, much less damaging to ozone layer, also to be phased out


The montreal protocol l.jpg
The Montreal Protocol Workplace?

  • 1980 - 880,000 tons CFC’s produced worldwide

  • 1996 - 141,000 tons

  • 1996 - all industrialized nations stopped producing CFC’s

  • Today: Illegal CFC trade, once quite large, starting to taper off

  • 2010 - rest of world expected to stop


The montreal protocol123 l.jpg
The Montreal Protocol Workplace?

  • However, the Bush administration has withdrawn from the Treaty, under pressure from agribusiness and chemical lobbyists, who favor increased spraying of the pesticide methyl bromide (the most dangerous ozone-destroying chemical still in use)…..


Toxic pollutants the basel convention l.jpg
Toxic Pollutants: Workplace?The Basel Convention

  • The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes (designed to control dumping of hazardous wastes from the industrialized world in developing countries)


Toxic pollutants the basel convention125 l.jpg
Toxic Pollutants: Workplace?The Basel Convention

  • Ratified by 170 countries

  • Despite being the largest producer of toxic pollutants in the world, the U.S. has signed but not ratified this agreement


Persistent organic pollutants126 l.jpg
Persistent Organic Pollutants Workplace?

  • UN Environmental Program organizing worldwide phaseout of top 12 through the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

    • Including DDT, PCBs, and dioxins

    • US has signed, but not ratified


Slide127 l.jpg
Lead Workplace?

  • American Assn. of Pediatrics now recommends toxic lead be removed from all housing and that all children be tested once during their first two years

  • 25% of U.S. homes still contain significant amounts of lead-based paint

    • Cost of removing lead from 4 million seriously affected homes: $28 billion

  • Cost savings each year thereafter: $43 billion (higher IQs, increased earning power, increased tax revenue, lower health care costs, less crime)


Leaded gasoline l.jpg
Leaded Gasoline Workplace?

  • Banned in Canada in 1990, US in 1996 (after 25-year phaseout period), EU in 2002, Africa in 2006

    • Ban fought by industry for decades

    • Scientists harassed

  • Many countries still sell leaded gasoline:

    • Indonesia, Venezuela, North Korea, Iraq, Afghanistan, Jordan, Syria, Yemen


Reach l.jpg
REACH Workplace?

  • Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals

  • European Treaty requiring companies to test chemicals already on the market by a set timetable and test new products before putting them on the market


Reach130 l.jpg
REACH Workplace?

  • Cost of evaluations < 1% of chemical industry’s total sales

  • Economic analyses show REACH could bring environmental benefits worth €95 billion over the next 25 years and result in health cost savings of €50 billion over the next 30 years


Medical waste131 l.jpg
Medical Waste Workplace?

  • Organizations:

    • Health Care Without Harm

    • Green Health Center Movement

  • Hospitals built and operated on more environmentally sosund principles save money (NAS):

    • Costs recovered more quickly, patients get better sooner, patients’ families happier, medical errors reduced, steaf turnover/absenteeism/workers’ comp claims drop


Solutions based on the precautionary principle l.jpg
Solutions Workplace?Based on the Precautionary Principle

“When evidence points toward the potential of an activity to cause significant, widespread or irreparable harm to public health or the environment, options for avoiding that harm should be examined and pursued, even though the harm is not yet fully understood or proven”


The precautionary principle practical essentials l.jpg
The Precautionary Principle: Workplace?Practical Essentials

  • Give human and environmental health the benefit of doubt

  • Include appropriate public participation in the discussion

  • Gather unbiased, scientific, technological and socioeconomic information

  • Consider less risky alternatives


The precautionary principle l.jpg
The Precautionary Principle Workplace?

  • Endorsed by APHA, ANA, CMA, others

  • Puerto Rico, San Francisco have adopted, among others

  • Big business, US Chamber of Commerce oppose


The precautionary principle135 l.jpg
The Precautionary Principle Workplace?

  • "All scientific work is incomplete - whether it be observational or experimental. All scientific work is liable to be upset or modified by advancing knowledge. That does not confer upon us a freedom to ignore the knowledge we already have, or to postpone the action it appears to demand at a given time." (Bradford Hill, 1965)


Contact information l.jpg
Contact Information Workplace?

Public Health and Social Justice Website

http://www.phsj.org

[email protected]


ad