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Regional Optical Networking - The Next Steps. I2 Member Meeting May 2, 2005. Quilt RON Workshops. Goal: Educate the regional community about fiber and optical network opportunities and technologies. 1 st Workshop June ‘04 in Denver “So you think you want some dark fiber?”

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Regional Optical Networking - The Next Steps

I2 Member Meeting

May 2, 2005

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Quilt RON Workshops

  • Goal: Educate the regional community about fiber and optical network opportunities and technologies.

    • 1st Workshop June ‘04 in Denver

      • “So you think you want some dark fiber?”

    • 2nd Workshop Nov. ‘04 in Raleigh

      • “So you’ve got some dark fiber-now what?”

    • 3rd Workshop June ‘05 Newport. RI

      • “So you’ve lit your fiber-now what?”

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Inaugural Workshop

  • June 2004 at Level 3’s Facility in Broomfield, CO

  • Focus on learning about the acquisition and operational issues associated optical networks.

    • A “Who’s Who of RON Experts from the R&E Community”

    • Not Bad for Beginners!

    • Archive available at:

  • Specific topics

    • Where is the fiber?

    • IRU’s and other legal issues

    • Technical Design

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Where’s the fiber?

  • Presenter - Victor Braud

  • Basic Issues

    • What kind of fiber is it?

    • Where does it go?

    • Who owns it?

    • Do they have any extra?

    • Do they have the right to sell it; if so will they sell it?

  • Can you afford it, including the cost of the:

    • IRU @ $500 to $2500/fiber/mile

    • Collocation @ $500 to $1,200/rack/month + power

    • O&M @ $100 to $300/route mile/year

    • Optronics to light and staff to maintain it?

  • Will the owner allow you reasonable access to it?

  • 20 year partnership with Owner?

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Indefeasible Right to Use

  • Presenter - Alex Preiser - Associate Legal Counsel, UCAR

  • Key Legal issues associated with IRU Agreements

    • IRU Defined

    • Key Terms

    • Considerations

    • Strategies

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IRU - Key Terms

  • Connection

  • Acceptance Testing

  • Maintenance

  • Construction

  • Fees

  • Performance

  • Property Rights

  • Term/Usage Rights

  • Payments/Taxes

  • Force Majeure

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Funding the Network(s)

  • Several models presented

    • Almost as many funding models as there are organizational models

  • Basic Costs

    • General Operations

    • Network Operations Center

    • Allocation of Optical Network

    • Equipment Maintenance

    • Equipment Replacement Allocation

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Technical Design Elements And Test Equipment

  • Presenter - Steve Cotter

  • Design

    • Optical budget = Output power – Input sensitivity

Steve Cotter – Internet2 / National LambdaRail

[email protected]

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Technical Design

  • Optical budget is affected by:

    • Fiber attenuation

    • Splices

    • Patch panels / connectors

    • Optical components (filters, amplifiers, etc.)

    • Bends in the fiber

    • Contamination (dirt, oil, etc.)

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Fiber Types

  • SMF (standard, 1310 nm optimized, G.652)

    • Most widely deployed so far, introduced in 1986, cheapest

    • Corning SMF-28

    • Corning SMF-28e

      • ‘extended band fiber – optimized for CWDM

  • DSF (Dispersion Shifted, G.653)

    • Intended for single channel operation at 1550 nm

    • Corning DSF

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Fiber Types, Con’t

  • NZDSF (Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted, G.655)

    • SMF/LS (limited slope) fiber from Corning

    • Later fiber types are engineered for WDM operation in the 1550 nm region only

      • TrueWave, FreeLight, LEAF, E-LEAF, TeraLight…

        • These are the latest generation fibers developed in mid 90’s

        • For better performance with high capacity DWDM systems

        • Optimized for DWDM in the C-band & L-band

      • MetroCor, WideLight are other types

      • Low PMD ULH fibers are also out there

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Ins and Outs of Co-location

  • Presenter - Steve Cotter

  • Co-location Site Survey

    • Know How to Get to the site

    • Access

    • Equipment Delivery

    • Inspect the facility

    • Know your costs

      • Power,

      • Cross-connects

      • Labor

Steve Cotter – Internet2 / National LambdaRail

[email protected]

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Acceptance Testing

  • Presenter - Paul Schopis

  • Main Issues

    • Background

      • Adapted lab approach

      • Examples on Web at ITEC sites



  • Layered approach

  • Specific targets

  • Physical Layer

  • Optical Layer

  • Full System

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Quilt 2nd RON Workshop

  • November/December 2004

    • Raleigh, NC hosted by MCNC.

  • Focus on Equipment available to light up the network.

  • New Approach

    • RFI with a Case Study served as discussion tool.

  • Selected Equipment Vendors Presented

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Example Equipment RFP

  • Presenter - Scott Gerstenberger

    • MiLR Optronics Acquisition

  • RFP Purpose

    • Gives the vendors the big picture of why you’re doing this.

    • Reduces the number of questions

    • Gives your project more credibility

  • Components

    • Background and Overview

      • Include: general R&E RON activities, about the fiber you have, and an overview of the optronics you want to buy

    • Network Topology and Fiber Specifications

      • Specifics of your fiber (maps, distances, fiber types, fiber providers, loss specifications, colo sites, etc.)

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Example RFP Components (cont’d)

  • DWDM System and Bid Requirements - Major section

    • Lay out your optronics design (list of OADM sites, wavelength capacity needed),

    • Trib interfaces you need, the initial specific configuration you plan to buy through the RFP

    • Expected network growth over time and how the vendor’s initial design needs to accommodate this growth,

    • Requirements for alien wavelengths,

    • Timetable, management and maintenance plan.

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Example RFP Components (cont’d)

  • Evaluation Criteria

    • Don’t make this too limiting or overly specific

    • Specifics:

      • Vendor’s ability to comply with the RFP specifications

      • Vendor’s ability to demonstrate the product in their lab

      • Customer references

      • Overall cost (put this last)

  • How to Respond

    • Boiler plate and procedural material your purchasing department requires

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Connecting to the Backbone

  • Presenter - Dave Reese

  • Option 1: Co-location

    • RON co-locates in same facility (not in same cage/space) as backbone.

    • Consider bulk fiber bundle between RON and backbone

      • Watch cross-connect fees!

  • Option 2: High fiber count

    • RON builds/buys/leases bulk fiber from nearby location into backbone facility

    • Distance is the limiting factor - some backbone interfaces are short reach ONLY

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Common RON Issues

  • Diversity

    • Do you need diverse entrance into backbone facility?

  • Common facility

    • Can you incorporate the backbone facility as integral part of your RON?

  • Will the ILEC make “waves?”

    • Some are now offering reasonable Gig-E, and indicating 10GE availability

    • Depending on your visibility, ILEC may apply pressure to use their services!

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Quilt 3rd RON Workshop

  • June 1-3, 2005

    • Newport, RI, co-hosted by OSHEAN

    • Focus will be on learning more about the issues of operating an optical network

    • Vendor Presentation May 31 – June 1

  • Agenda Topics

    • Optical Network Testing

    • Transition from Layer 3 to Layer 1

    • Optical Network Management Tools

    • Issues Connecting

    • URL:

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Fiber Testing Goals

  • Operations and Maintenance

    • Is this fiber contiguous

    • Are optical components functioning as they should

    • Are there dirty connectors or bad splices

  • Initial Fiber Characterization

    • Measure span loss

    • Measure optical return loss (reflections)

    • Measure Dispersion

      • Chromatic Dispersion testing required at 10G

      • Chromatic and Polarization mode required at 40G

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Test Equipment - Overview

  • Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

    • Measure attenuation along span

    • Can be used to troubleshoot fiber cuts

  • Optical Spectrum Analyzer

    • Display and measure the power levels of all the lambdas on the fiber

    • Helps ensure waves are balanced

    • Consider purchasing two

    • Want one with at least 2 nm sensitivity

  • Bit Test Set

    • Perform packet loss test to determine your BER

    • We require a 24 hour test before accepting circuits

  • 1310nm / 1550nm Light Source

  • Optical Power Meter

  • Chromatic Dispersion test set

  • SONET / GE / 10GE test sets

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Fiber Test Equipment Kit

  • Fiber Inspection Scope

    • Optical Inspection Scope (<$500)

    • Video Inspection Scope (USB or standalone) ($2-3K)

  • Cleaning Kit ($100)

    • Cleaning sticks, alcohol, and wipes.

  • Laser glasses/goggles ($300)

  • Visual Fault Locator ($300)

  • Loss test set ($1K)

    • Stabilized light source

    • Power meter

    • Look for multi-wavelength units (1310/1550/1625 is common)

    • Loss testing often included with OTDR. Recommend you get both standalone and OTDR option.

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OTDR Configuration

  • Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

    • Buy modular unit that can add features

    • For operations and maintenance (>$50K)

      • OTDR with order of 40dB of dynamic range ($30K)

      • Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA) ($30K)

    • For initial fiber characterization, add (total >$100K)

      • Chromatic Dispersion analyzer. Often, vendors will have a CM module with an integrated OTDR, so you can save some money getting this rather than discrete CM and OTDR modules ($20-30K)

      • Polarization Mode Dispersion testing ($60K)

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Best of Breed Modular OTDR

  • Agilent N3900

  • EXFO FTB 400

  • Nettest CMA 5000

    • This unit is OEMed by Corning and sold as the Corning 500 Plus Multitester

  • Informal survey of RON operators indicate most folks have Nettest/Corning or EXFO

  • Some vendors have a trade-in program, so if you have an old crusty OTDR…..