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Autonomous Monitoring of Vulnerable Habitats. And other tales. Robin Freeman, CEES, Microsoft Research 13 July 2007. Overview. Introduction Previous Work Analysing Avian Navigation Habitat Monitoring Brief Results Future Work. Introduction. About Me

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Autonomous monitoring of vulnerable habitats l.jpg

Autonomous Monitoring of Vulnerable Habitats

And other tales..

Robin Freeman, CEES, Microsoft Research

13 July 2007


Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • Introduction

  • Previous Work

    • Analysing Avian Navigation

  • Habitat Monitoring

  • Brief Results

  • Future Work


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

  • About Me

    • BSc CS-AI, MSc Evolutionary and Adaptive Systems,

    • D.Phil (Engineering and Zoology)

      • Part of the Life Sciences Interface Doctoral Training Centre, Oxford

      • Trains physical and computation sciences graduates in biology before starting PhD in life sciences.

    • Now a Post-Doc at Microsoft Research

      • Computational Ecology and Biodiversity Science Group

      • European Science Initiative, External Research Office.


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~9hrs

~15min


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Introduction

  • Analysing Avian Navigation

    • GPS Tracking of Pigeons, Oxford

    • GPS Tracking of Manx Shearwaters, Skomer

  • Habitat Monitoring

    • Manx Shearwater

      • Skomer Island, Wales


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    Introduction

    • Zoological Interest

      • Specific questions (Sensory basis of navigation),

      • Conservation (home range, behavioural anomalies),

      • Other general questions.

    • Technical Interest

      • Novel algorithms/methods

        • Analysis of positional information

        • Feedback to bio-robotics, Complex Systems, Artificial Life, etc


    Pigeons why pigeons l.jpg
    Pigeons? - Why Pigeons?

    • Model Navigational Species

      • Much easier to study than wild birds,

        • Birds return to a maintained loft (Wytham).

          • Allows attachment of GPS device

      • Large body of research to draw on.

        • Pigeon navigation has been studied for over 100 years.


    How do they navigate l.jpg
    How Do They Navigate?

    • Two hypotheses for the sensory basis of navigation in the familiar area

      • ‘Map and Compass’

        • Compass controlled navigation (as it is at unfamiliar locations).

          • Series of decision points using compass.

      • ‘Pilotage’

        • Independent of a compass, relying directly on visual cues

          • Oh look, there’s that house!


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    Clock Shift

    • Experiment

      • Train the birds to ‘recapitulate’ routes to home,

      • Then ‘clock-shift’ the birds by 90°

        • Sets up a direct competition between visual landmarks (the recapitulated route) and erroneous compass instructions

    With D Biro, J Meade, T Guilford & S J Roberts


    Slide11 l.jpg


    Slide12 l.jpg

    Delayed Clock shift response (landmark related)

    Tracks ranked by Mahalonobis distance from recapping distribution


    Slide13 l.jpg

    • Demonstrates that both mechanisms must be involved.

      • The birds must be able to home using visual information alone (they recapitulate)

      • Consistent deviation from recapitulated path

        • Offset? Zigzag?

    Biro D, Freeman R, Meade J, S. Roberts, Guilford T. (2007) PNAS. 104(18)


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    Behavioural Segmentation

    - Hidden-Markov Models

    - Positional Entropy


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    Landscape Analysis

    • More likely to fly over edge ‘rich’ areas

    • Flight pattern becomes less predictable over edge rich areas.

    Lau KK, Roberts S, Biro D, Freeman R, Meade J, Guilford T. (2006) J. Theo. Bio. 239(1) pp71-78


    Slide16 l.jpg

    Paired Homing Pigeon Flight

    Actual pair

    • GPS data for 48 Pigeons from 4 diff. sites

    • All possible pairs considered

    • Any real interaction between the birds should be seen as higher coupling between real pairs

    • Other pairs may show

      • High coupling due to same landscape/other unknown variables

    Bird paired with self

    Bird & random bird from different site


    Slide17 l.jpg

    Birds which flew together show significantly (p < 0.05) higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.


    Manx shearwater puffinus puffinus l.jpg
    Manx Shearwater higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.(Puffinus puffinus)

    • Highly pelagic, migratory seabird.

      • Burrow dwelling, central place forager.

      • UK summer breeding

      • Winters in South America

    • 250, 000 – 300, 000 breeding pairs.

      • 45% on three Pembrokeshire islands, Skomer, Skokholm and Middleholm;

      • 36% on Rum.


    Motivation l.jpg
    Motivation higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    • Ecology and Behaviour very similar to other Procellariiformes

      • Albatrosses, Petrels and Shearwaters.

        • 19 of 21 Albatross Species now globally threatened;

        • Devastating impact of long-line fishing

        • Understanding their behaviour, habitat and ecology may allow us to reduce this decline.


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    Motivation higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    UK Seabird decline over recent years

    Source: JNCC, UK Seabirds 2005


    Skomer island l.jpg
    Skomer Island higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    • Small Island (~2km long) off coast of Wales

      • Home to large populations of Guillemots, Razorbills, Kittiwakes, Puffins, Fulmars

    • Worlds largest population of Manx Shearwaters

      • Well established research centre and study programmes


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    Skomer Island higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.


    Previous work l.jpg
    Previous Work higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    • GPS Tracking of Manx Shearwater

      • Distribution of foraging was largely unknown;

        • South to Spain;

      • Interaction

        • With fisheries?

        • Environmental variables?

      • Establishment of Marine protection zones.


    Slide25 l.jpg

    • Foraging largely confined to Irish Sea; higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    • Birds did not fly far south..

      • Even when they had the opportunity to do so.

      • Climate effect?

    • Clustered areas;

    • Rafting.

    Right: Distribution of individual over trips of 1 to 7 days. Red shows incubating birds, blue chick rearing


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    Sitting & Erratic Movement higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    Directional Movement


    Slide28 l.jpg


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    Autonomous Habitat Monitoring higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    • Working closely with Academic Partners

      • University of Oxford

        • Prof. Tim Guilford, Animal Behaviour

        • Prof. Chris Perrins, Edward Grey Ornithology Institute

      • University of Freie Berlin

        • Tomasz Naumowicz, PHD, Free University Berlin

        • Prof Torben Weis, U Duisburg-Essen


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    Autonomous Habitat Monitoring higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    • Create and deploy a wireless sensor network that can:

      • Monitor the visitations of individual birds;

      • Monitor environmental conditions inside and outside the burrow;

      • Provide a pilot system for eventual integration with GPS tracking;

      • Do this all night, every night…


    Methods l.jpg
    Methods higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    • Approx. 10 Burrow monitored

      • Ringed and RFID tagged pair of birds in each burrow;

      • Sensors & wireless sensor node to each burrow;


    Methods32 l.jpg
    Methods higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    • Network

      • ScatterWeb platform from Freie Universitat Berlin;

    • Nodes

      • 2 x Passive Infrared

      • 2 x Temp/Humidity

      • RFID Detector


    Initial results l.jpg
    Initial Results higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    • No observable impact on birds’ behaviour

      • No evidence of digging, distress or abandonment.

    • Of 10 monitored burrows

      • 7 hatched (last week)

      • Remainder still on eggs


    Initial results34 l.jpg
    Initial Results higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    • Obvious nocturnal distribution of activity

      • Bimodal?

    • Resolution and density of data already significantly higher that achievable using traditional methods.

    All recorded events


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    2007/05/15 12:00 higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    2007/05/15 00:00

    2007/05/14 12:00


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    Initial Results higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.


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    00:00 higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    Temperature Variation over 4 days (20-23 June)

    • Red: Temp Outside

    • Green: Temp Inside

    06:00

    18:00

    12:00


    Future questions l.jpg
    Future Questions… higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    • Do individuals return at specific times?

    • How do pairs alternate feeding strategies?

    • How does activity/environment vary across space and time?

    • How do the results vary with weather?


    Future directions l.jpg
    Future Directions higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    • Deploy second network

      • Pilot has allowed us to iron out most problems;

      • Hope to set up additional network this winter.

        • Create a toolkit that any ecologist can deploy and use.

    • Integrate GPS tracking with network

      • Continual monitoring of foraging behaviour.


    Slide40 l.jpg

    ~9hrs higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.

    ~15min


    An aside 1 l.jpg
    An Aside (1) higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.


    An aside 2 l.jpg
    An Aside (2) higher coupling than other possible pairings. Implies some form of information transfer.


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