Spiritual and Religious Factors in Depression : The State of the Science. Michael E. McCullough University of Miami. Religion and Health: Damned by Overstatement?.
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Michael E. McCullough
University of Miami
“Based on the research data we how have at hand, your doctor could--from a strictly scientific point of view--recommend religious involvement to improve your chances of being able to . . . Stay healthy and avoid life-threatening and disabling diseases like cancer and heart disease...[and] live longer.” (p. 15).
“Serious methodological and empirical issues continue to plague the literature on religion and health. Even well-conducted studies demonstrate only a weak or nonexistent association.” (p. 350)
Witter et al. (1985)
N the Science = 34,706, National Opinion Research Center, 1972-1996
Dimensions of Religiousness and Likelihood of Diagnosis with Nine Major Mental Disorders
Kendler et al., 2002
150 Studies Nine Major Mental Disorders
Mean Correlation of Religiousness and Depressive Symptoms = -.126
Findings almost = for both genders and across ethnic groups
Effects of Positive vs. Negative Religious Coping
Effects of Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Religiousness
Smith, McCullough, & Poll, 2003
Pargament, Smith, Koenig, & Perez, 1998 Nine Major Mental Disorders
McCullough & Laurenceau, 2005
“It seems to me most important for the whole problem of religion and health to recognize that the magical world view is not religion. . .Religion is not magic, and magic is not religion.”
Paul Tillich, 1958, “Religion and Health”