Depression. Dr. Aubrey H. Fine. For many years, children and adolescents were thought incapable of experiencing depression. It was considered an adult disease. 1975- National Institute of Mental Health met and discussed depression among children.
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Dr. Aubrey H. Fine
5 or more of the following symptoms must be present nearly every day during the same 2-week period to diagnose an adolescent with MDD
Diagnosis – con’t
Risk Factors for Depression in Adolescence
Examples of Stressors That are Associated with Depression
Criteria to diagnose bipolar disorder:
With Conduct Disorder (CD)
With Anxiety Disorders
With Substance Use Disorders (SUD)
Gender is well known to be an important but poorly understood factor influencing the risk of MDD. The prevalence of MDD, while equal between boys and girls prior to puberty, doubles in young women after puberty. This increase in females has been hypothesized to be secondary to hormonal changes occurring during puberty.
Treatment of Depression and Bipolar Disorder
Psychosocial Treatments for MDD
Psychopharmacological Treatment for MDD
Pharmacotherapy for Bipolar Disorders
Prevention of Depression and Bipolar Disorder
The IOM identified three aims or desired outcomes for mental health prevention:
Prevention programs for adolescents
Penn Prevention Program
Clarke and Colleagues
Beardslee and Associates
3 characteristics that described resilient children of depressed parents.
Resilient youth repeatedly said that understanding that their parent was ill, that the disorder had a name, and that they were not to blame for it contributed substantially to their doing well. This, then, became a central part of the preventive intervention.
Families believe that these programs are helpful. Of the first 20 families enrolled, promising effects were observed 6 months after intervention and a further follow-up report showed sustained effects over 3 years.
Increase of youth suicide due to:
Decrease of youth suicide is due to:
In 2002, white youth had a suicidal rate of 10.6 per 100,000 compared to rates of 6.5 for African Americans, 6.6 for Hispanic youth, 5.3 for Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and 17.9 for American Indians and Alaskan Natives.
Universal Approaches to Youth Suicide Prevention
Preventive Interventions and Treatments
School-Based programs for suicidal students
Emergency Department Interventions For Young Suicide Attempts
Psychotherapeutic Treatments for Suicidal Youth
Pharmacological Treatments for Suicidal Youth
Posthospitalization Programs for Suicidal Youth
Research Agenda for Youth Suicide Prevention
What We Don’t Know About Youth Suicide
What We Don’t Know About Suicide Prevention Programs
What We Don’t Know About Treatment of Suicidality and Underlying Disorders Among Youth
Funding for Evaluation Studies