History of biomedical engineering
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History of Biomedical Engineering. The objective of this lecture is to provide: An overview of the history of Biomedical Engineering Some of the critical inventions/discoveries that has shaped the modern medicine The profession that Biomedical Engineering has become today. Chronology.

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History of Biomedical Engineering

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History of biomedical engineering

History of Biomedical Engineering

  • The objective of this lecture is to provide:

    • An overview of the history of Biomedical Engineering

    • Some of the critical inventions/discoveries that has shaped the modern medicine

    • The profession that Biomedical Engineering has become today

CHEE 340


Chronology

Chronology

  • Prior to the 1900’s:

    • Medicine has little to offer the common individual

    • At the turn of the 20th century, advances in almost all areas of science enabled medical researchers to make giant strides forward

  • Early 1900’s:

    • First advances in medical diagnostics and imaging

    • In 1896 Roentgen developed X-ray imaging

      • initially used for the diagnosis of bone fractures

      • technology has evolved today to visual all organ systems (with the use of radio-opaque materials)

CHEE 340


Roentgen s x rays

Roentgen’s X-Rays

  • Radiograph of the hand of Albert von Kolliker, made at the conclusion of Roentgen's lecture and demonstration at the Wurzburg Physical-Medical Society on 23 January 1896

  • Later, Roentgen went on to win the first Nobel Prize in 1901 for his invention

CHEE 340


Chronology1

Chronology

  • Early 1900’s:

    • In 1906 Einthoven developed the electrocardiogram (ECG)

      • pattern of electrical charges in the heart during contraction

      • diagnostic tool that is still used today

CHEE 340


Einthoven s ecg

Einthoven’s ECG

  • Capillary galvanoscope used by Einthoven (slightly different configuration). Mercury droplet in the horizontal tube moves under the influence of an electric field applied to the two electrodes

  • Familiar trace of the modern ECG used to diagnosis various heart problems and conditions

  • Later, Einthoven went on to win the Nobel Prize in 1924 for his invention

CHEE 340


Chronology2

Chronology

  • 1920’s:

    • Saw the development of refrigeration which lead to the process of storing blood

    • In 1929 Drinkler invented the first mechanical respirator (a.k.a. “iron lung”)

CHEE 340


Drinkler s respirator iron lung

Drinkler’s Respirator (“Iron Lung”)

  • First widely used mechanical device capable of artificial respiration to treat victims of respiratory paralysis. The patient’s entire body, excluding the head, was placed in a sealed tank. Tank pressure was increased and decreased to move air into and out of the lungs to simulate normal respiration.

CHEE 340


Chronology3

Chronology

  • 1930’s:

    • Development of the heart-lung machine (Gibson circa 1935)

      • artificial device for shunting blood flow outside of the patient by bypass the heart and lungs to allowing for more effective heart surgery (i.e. heart could be stopped)

    • Development of the electron microscope (Ruska circa 1931)

      • providing the first real ability to visualize sub-cellular structures

CHEE 340


Chronology4

Chronology

  • 1940’s and 1950’s:

    • Saw major developments in cardiovascular medicine

    • Development of angiography (Cournand 1941)

      • First local visualization of arteries and veins using a catheter and radio-opaque dyes in a living subject

    • First use of the artificial tissue replacements (DeBakey 1954)

      • synthetic artery grafts (Dacron polyester)

    • Invention of the pacemaker (Zoll 1955)

      • implantable assist device to recreate the natural rhythm of the heart to initiate natural contractions

CHEE 340


What is biomedical engineering

What is Biomedical Engineering?

  • Many different titles have been used to for engineers working in the medical/biological industry:

    • Biomedical Engineering

    • Biological Engineering

    • Clinical Engineering

    • Bioengineering

CHEE 340


Bioengineering

Bioengineering

  • Broad research-related field spanning biotechnology and genetics related to all biological fields

    • Food and Agriculture (Biological Engineering)

    • Medical and diagnostic tests

    • Development of vaccines, enzymes, antibody production

    • Environmental (e.g. bioremediation)

    • Basic sciences (e.g. protein interactions with surfaces)

CHEE 340


Biomedical engineering

Biomedical Engineering

  • Application of engineering principles to understand, modify or control human biological systems

    • Detection and monitoring of physiological signals

    • Therapeutics and rehabilitation devices/procedures

    • Devices for replacement/augmentation of bodily functions

    • Medical imaging

  • When principles are applied in a hospital setting with the direct application to patient care, this is referred as to the profession of Clinical Engineering

CHEE 340


Professional status

Professional Status

  • Professional licensing (P.Eng.) of Biomedical Engineers in Canada falls under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB)

  • Similarly, in the States professional licensing for Biomedical Engineers falls under the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)

CHEE 340


Biomedical engineering societies

Biomedical Engineering Societies

  • Engineering and Medical Biological Society (EMBS)

    • Offshoot of the Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineering (IEEE)

    • International society with over 8,000 members world-wide

    • Hold annual conferences

  • International Federation of Medical and Biomedical Engineering (IFMBS)

    • International federation of various Biomedical Engineering societies with over 5,000 members world-wide

    • Hold annual conferences and sponsor their own journal

    • Official consultant to the United Nations (UN) and the World Health Organization (WHO)

CHEE 340


Academic research societies

Academic Research Societies

  • Numerous other academic research societies also include Biomedical Engineering:

    • Society for Biomaterials

    • Society for Biomechanics

    • Orthopaedic Research Society

    • Tissue Engineering Society International

    • Heart and Stroke Foundation

    • Arthritis Society

    • International Cartilage Research Society

    • and many, many, more…

CHEE 340


Summary

Summary

  • Biomedical Engineering is an inter-/multi-disciplinary field that applies engineering principles to medicine with the aim of providing better heath care

  • Biomedical Engineering has its own professional status and is regulated a profession

CHEE 340


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