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Biomedical Engineering. Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering Kate Gleason College of Engineering Rochester Institute of Technology http://www.rit.edu/kgcoe /biomedical. Daniel Phillips, Ph.D., Program Director [email protected] Outline . What is biomedical engineering?

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Biomedical Engineering

Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering

Kate Gleason College of Engineering

Rochester Institute of Technology

http://www.rit.edu/kgcoe/biomedical

Daniel Phillips, Ph.D., Program Director [email protected]


Outline
Outline

What is biomedical engineering?

Applications and challenges

Employment prospects and data

Questions?

Demonstrations


What is engineering
What is Engineering?

Scientists explore to gain understanding -

Engineers develop creative solutions to problems based on that understanding.

  • Engineering focuses on the development of new products and processes to enhance the world around us,

    • leveraging in creative and innovative ways the vast knowledge base embraced by the physical and life sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics),

    • enhanced by the quantitative power of mathematics.


What is biomedical engineering
What is Biomedical Engineering?

The branch of engineering that uniquely leverages the vast knowledge base embraced by biology to solve problems focused on healthcare & the human body.

Biomedical Engineers

understand the inner workings of the human body, including its organs, circulatory system, nerves, muscles, and bones, as well as the unique constraints placed on design.

are experts at assessing the human body as a complex, interactivesystem.

provide teams a link between human biology & engineering analysis.

work in teams of experts across multiple disciplines

to create medical and health-related products


Biomedical Engineers work in teams to

develop devices that solve medical and health-related problems

Artificial organs and tissues

Prostheses

Implants

develop probes and sensing equipment specific to the human physiology

develop procedures to implement devices and new technologies in and on the human body

interpret and run clinical trials on new devices and procedures

What is Biomedical Engineering?


Core Competencies:

Human anatomy, biology, physiology

Statistics

Problem solving capability

Systems engineering

What is Biomedical Engineering?

  • All core sciences, integrated with mathematics and infused with engineering training, are used to address a wide variety of challenges

  • related to the healthcare and the human body!


Kidney

Blood & Waste

Blood

Waste

Systems Engineering Approach

Example: The Kidney

Function of kidney is to remove soluble waste from body.

Engineers analyze the kidney’s functions subject to given inputs,

and develop models that can predict outputs.

Engineers develop devices that replicate kidney functions.


Systems Engineering Approach

The kidney does not operate in isolation;

it interacts with other systems in the body!

Heart

Blood & Waste

Blood & Waste

Waste from

cellular processes

Need to analyze kidney and interactions!

Waste from

cellular processes

Kidney

Blood

Blood & Waste

Waste


US Dept of Labor

Bureau of Labor Statistics

Biomedical Engineering

Occupational Employment Statistics

Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2010

http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes172031.htm


  • Biomedical engineers

  • Employment by:

    • industry, occupation, and percent distribution,

      • (2008 and projected 2018)

  • * (Employment in thousands)

  • **Industries with fewer than 50 jobs, confidential data, or poor quality data are not displayed

  • Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition

  • ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/ep/ind-occ.matrix/occ_pdf/occ_17-2031.pdf



  • A “simple” challenge –

    • Measure oxygen actually delivered to tissue

    • Take tissue sample and measure oxygen content (pretty invasive, messy)

    • Take blood perfusing tissue and measure oxygen content (somewhat removed, still sort of messy)


  • A “simple” challenge –

    • Measure oxygen actually delivered to tissue

    • NONINVASIVELY (no bloodshed)

    • Pulse oximetry provides an indirect method to assess two parameters simultaneously

      • Percentage of oxygenated hemoglobin

      • Mechanical pumping action of heart


The science:

Oxygen carried mainly via oxygenated hemoglobin

Deoxygenated hemoglobin absorbs light differently than oxygenated hemoglobin


Engineering solution – amount of oxygen delivered

Measure absorbance at two different wavelengths to determine percentage of oxygenated hemoglobin

If you know amount of hemoglobin per unit volume of blood, you can assess amount of oxygen available to be delivered to tissue (basic goal)

SpO2 – percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen


  • Engineering solution – measuring pumping action of heart

  • Heart pumping produce pulsatile pressure in arterial vasculature

  • Pressure pulses produces local volume changes

  • Volume changes change overall absorbance of light

  • Measuring absorbance changes provides indication of pressure changes which can be traced back to heart pumping

  • Photo-plethysmography


Pulse oximeter – a multidisciplinary effort

Biomedical – basic design of the instrumentation based on understanding of cardiovascular physiology, cell and molecular biology

Electrical – light drive and sensing circuitry

Mechanical – finger clip mechanism

Computer – signal processing

Chemical – Organic Light Emitting Diode display

Optical – light source and detection


  • Demonstration

  • Finger pulse oximeter

    • Meaures pulse rate and SpO2

  • Which would you expect to change more rapidly?

  • Which would you expect to vary the most – person to person?

    • Simple breath hold and release

      • - What happens to Pulse Rate?

      • - What happens to SpO2?


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