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Biomedical Engineering. Nikhil Bagadia, Jason Berta, and David Manthei Department of Biomedical Engineering University of Wisconsin, Madison March 19, 2001. Outline. Engineering in general Biomedical engineering in particular Our design project Advice Resources Questions.

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Biomedical engineering

Biomedical Engineering

Nikhil Bagadia, Jason Berta, and David Manthei

Department of Biomedical Engineering

University of Wisconsin, Madison

March 19, 2001


Outline
Outline

  • Engineering in general

  • Biomedical engineering in particular

  • Our design project

  • Advice

  • Resources

  • Questions


What is engineering
What is Engineering?

  • The application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, machines, processes, and systems [American, 2000]

  • A way of thinking

    • Problem solving using critical thinking skills and a logical approach

    • Requires solid fundamentals and creativity


Types of engineering
Types of Engineering

  • All nerds are not the same…

[Enser, 2002]


Mechanical engineering
Mechanical Engineering

  • Design and build…everything

    • Engines

    • Hydraulic lifts

    • Air conditioners, etc.

  • Work at:

    • Harley-Davidson

    • Briggs & Stratton

    • Millions of other companies


  • Electrical engineering
    Electrical Engineering

    • Design circuitry systems for:

      • Computers

      • Stereo equipment

      • Sensors and signals

      • Anything electronic...

  • Work at:

    • IBM

    • Intel

    • Millions of other companies


  • Chemical engineering
    Chemical Engineering

    • Develop the systems to mass-produce chemicals

    • Work at:

      • 3M

      • DuPont

      • Dutch Boy

      • Millions of other companies


    Civil engineering
    Civil Engineering

    • Design and build structures:

      • Bridges

      • Roads

      • Infrastructure

      • Buildings, etc.

  • Work for:

    • The Government

    • Independent firms


  • Other engineering disciplines
    Other Engineering Disciplines

    • Nuclear

    • Aerospace

    • Geological

    • Industrial, etc.


    Biomedical engineering1
    Biomedical Engineering

    • Application of engineering concepts to life sciences


    Biomedical engineering specializations
    Biomedical Engineering Specializations

    • Bioinstrumentation

    • Biomaterials

    • Tissue engineering

    • Rehabilitation engineering

    • Biomolecular engineering

    • Systems engineering

    • Radiological engineering


    Biomechanics
    Biomechanics

    • What is mechanics?

      • That science, or branch of applied mathematics, which treats of the action of forces on bodies [Webster’s, 1998]


    Bme design sequence at uw
    BME DesignSequence at UW

    • Six semesters of design

    • “Real-world” projects

    • Previous projects:

      • Modified crutch design

      • Thermal probe, etc.

  • Current projects can be found at:

    http://www.cae.wisc.edu/~bmedesign


  • Problem 1
    Problem #1

    • Brookfield East has built an amusement park. The main attraction is the 600’ slide (with a steep angle) shown below:


    Problem 2
    Problem #2

    • Hot lunch thieves


    Problem 3
    Problem #3

    • Hookey


    The design process
    The Design Process

    • Problem definitionidentify/understand

      • Design contraints

    • Preliminary design ideasbrainstorming

    • Choose single design to pursuebest option

    • Design detailing

    • Evaluate design

    • Prototypebuild, test, evaluate

    • Beyondpatent, commercialization


    The redesign of a ski binding system to reduce the incidence and or grade of knee injuries

    The Redesign of a Ski-Binding System to Reduce the Incidence and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    Nikhil Bagadia, Jason Berta, James Burke, and David Manthei

    BME 402

    March 19, 2002


    Another outline
    Another Outline and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    • Background

    • The knee

    • The components of a ski

    • Design constraints

    • Alternatives

    • The design

    • Future direction


    Background
    Background and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    • Pre-1980: ankle injuries dominate skiing

      • Low-cut boots

    • Advancements reduced ankle injuries

      • High-backed boots

    • Same advancements increased knee injuries from 3% to 20%


    The knee
    The Knee and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    [Marieb et al., 2001]


    Background cont d
    Background (cont’d)... and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    • Most debilitating knee injury: ACL

    • 20% of all skiing injuries

      • 20,000 per year in the United States

    [Siliski, 1994]


    Background cont d1
    Background (cont’d)... and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    • Key injury mechanism: rotation

    [Feagin, 1994]


    The phantom foot
    The Phantom Foot and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    [Elmqvist and Johnson, 1994]


    The ski
    The Ski and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    • Components:

      • Ski

      • Boot

      • Binding

    • How it works:

      • All or nothing

      • Do not address rotational injuries effectively

    [Salomon, 2001]


    Problem statement
    Problem Statement and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    In order to reduce the incidence and/or grade of ski-related knee injuries, we are designing an addendum for the ski-binding system which will allow a calculated degree of lateral movement


    Design constraints
    Design Constraints and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    Performance vs. Safety


    Alternatives
    Alternatives and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    • Electromechanical ski binding

      • Changes released settings based on muscle activity

      • Too complex


    The design
    The Design and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    Mesoplate


    The design cont d
    The Design (cont’d)... and/or Grade of Knee Injuries


    The design cont d1
    The Design (cont’d)... and/or Grade of Knee Injuries


    Advantages
    Advantages and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    • Simple concept

    • Purely mechanical

    • Robust

    • Combats a very common skiing reality

    • Problem not being adequately addressed

      • Nothing like this is available

    • Wide appeal


    Future direction
    Future Direction and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    • Fully-functional prototype

    • Testing

      • Torque tests, release scenarios, skiing with device

    • Patent

    • Business model

      • Market evaluation, OIM issues, marketing strategy, capital generation


    Advice
    Advice and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    • Understand engineering before entering

    • Know options eg. ECE w/ biological focus

    • Talk to a lot of people advisors and older students

    • Get close to at least 1 professor do research

    • Intern or coop

    • Develop other skills especially communication and people skills


    Advice cont d
    Advice (cont’d)… and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    • Learn to work well in teams understand peoples’ strong points and accentuate

    • Jobs are tougher to find with this major


    Resources
    Resources and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    • See handouts


    Questions
    Questions??? and/or Grade of Knee Injuries


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