Biomedical engineering
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Biomedical Engineering. Nikhil Bagadia, Jason Berta, and David Manthei Department of Biomedical Engineering University of Wisconsin, Madison March 19, 2001. Outline. Engineering in general Biomedical engineering in particular Our design project Advice Resources Questions.

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Biomedical engineering

Biomedical Engineering

Nikhil Bagadia, Jason Berta, and David Manthei

Department of Biomedical Engineering

University of Wisconsin, Madison

March 19, 2001


Outline

Outline

  • Engineering in general

  • Biomedical engineering in particular

  • Our design project

  • Advice

  • Resources

  • Questions


What is engineering

What is Engineering?

  • The application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, machines, processes, and systems [American, 2000]

  • A way of thinking

    • Problem solving using critical thinking skills and a logical approach

    • Requires solid fundamentals and creativity


Types of engineering

Types of Engineering

  • All nerds are not the same…

[Enser, 2002]


Mechanical engineering

Mechanical Engineering

  • Design and build…everything

    • Engines

    • Hydraulic lifts

    • Air conditioners, etc.

  • Work at:

    • Harley-Davidson

    • Briggs & Stratton

    • Millions of other companies


  • Electrical engineering

    Electrical Engineering

    • Design circuitry systems for:

      • Computers

      • Stereo equipment

      • Sensors and signals

      • Anything electronic...

  • Work at:

    • IBM

    • Intel

    • Millions of other companies


  • Chemical engineering

    Chemical Engineering

    • Develop the systems to mass-produce chemicals

    • Work at:

      • 3M

      • DuPont

      • Dutch Boy

      • Millions of other companies


    Civil engineering

    Civil Engineering

    • Design and build structures:

      • Bridges

      • Roads

      • Infrastructure

      • Buildings, etc.

  • Work for:

    • The Government

    • Independent firms


  • Other engineering disciplines

    Other Engineering Disciplines

    • Nuclear

    • Aerospace

    • Geological

    • Industrial, etc.


    Biomedical engineering1

    Biomedical Engineering

    • Application of engineering concepts to life sciences


    Biomedical engineering specializations

    Biomedical Engineering Specializations

    • Bioinstrumentation

    • Biomaterials

    • Tissue engineering

    • Rehabilitation engineering

    • Biomolecular engineering

    • Systems engineering

    • Radiological engineering


    Biomechanics

    Biomechanics

    • What is mechanics?

      • That science, or branch of applied mathematics, which treats of the action of forces on bodies [Webster’s, 1998]


    Bme design sequence at uw

    BME DesignSequence at UW

    • Six semesters of design

    • “Real-world” projects

    • Previous projects:

      • Modified crutch design

      • Thermal probe, etc.

  • Current projects can be found at:

    http://www.cae.wisc.edu/~bmedesign


  • Problem 1

    Problem #1

    • Brookfield East has built an amusement park. The main attraction is the 600’ slide (with a steep angle) shown below:


    Problem 2

    Problem #2

    • Hot lunch thieves


    Problem 3

    Problem #3

    • Hookey


    The design process

    The Design Process

    • Problem definitionidentify/understand

      • Design contraints

    • Preliminary design ideasbrainstorming

    • Choose single design to pursuebest option

    • Design detailing

    • Evaluate design

    • Prototypebuild, test, evaluate

    • Beyondpatent, commercialization


    The redesign of a ski binding system to reduce the incidence and or grade of knee injuries

    The Redesign of a Ski-Binding System to Reduce the Incidence and/or Grade of Knee Injuries

    Nikhil Bagadia, Jason Berta, James Burke, and David Manthei

    BME 402

    March 19, 2002


    Another outline

    Another Outline

    • Background

    • The knee

    • The components of a ski

    • Design constraints

    • Alternatives

    • The design

    • Future direction


    Background

    Background

    • Pre-1980: ankle injuries dominate skiing

      • Low-cut boots

    • Advancements reduced ankle injuries

      • High-backed boots

    • Same advancements increased knee injuries from 3% to 20%


    The knee

    The Knee

    [Marieb et al., 2001]


    Background cont d

    Background (cont’d)...

    • Most debilitating knee injury: ACL

    • 20% of all skiing injuries

      • 20,000 per year in the United States

    [Siliski, 1994]


    Background cont d1

    Background (cont’d)...

    • Key injury mechanism: rotation

    [Feagin, 1994]


    The phantom foot

    The Phantom Foot

    [Elmqvist and Johnson, 1994]


    The ski

    The Ski

    • Components:

      • Ski

      • Boot

      • Binding

    • How it works:

      • All or nothing

      • Do not address rotational injuries effectively

    [Salomon, 2001]


    Problem statement

    Problem Statement

    In order to reduce the incidence and/or grade of ski-related knee injuries, we are designing an addendum for the ski-binding system which will allow a calculated degree of lateral movement


    Design constraints

    Design Constraints

    Performance vs. Safety


    Alternatives

    Alternatives

    • Electromechanical ski binding

      • Changes released settings based on muscle activity

      • Too complex


    The design

    The Design

    Mesoplate


    The design cont d

    The Design (cont’d)...


    The design cont d1

    The Design (cont’d)...


    Advantages

    Advantages

    • Simple concept

    • Purely mechanical

    • Robust

    • Combats a very common skiing reality

    • Problem not being adequately addressed

      • Nothing like this is available

    • Wide appeal


    Future direction

    Future Direction

    • Fully-functional prototype

    • Testing

      • Torque tests, release scenarios, skiing with device

    • Patent

    • Business model

      • Market evaluation, OIM issues, marketing strategy, capital generation


    Advice

    Advice

    • Understand engineering before entering

    • Know options eg. ECE w/ biological focus

    • Talk to a lot of people advisors and older students

    • Get close to at least 1 professor do research

    • Intern or coop

    • Develop other skills especially communication and people skills


    Advice cont d

    Advice (cont’d)…

    • Learn to work well in teams understand peoples’ strong points and accentuate

    • Jobs are tougher to find with this major


    Resources

    Resources

    • See handouts


    Questions

    Questions???


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