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Tonight’s Agenda. Internet Links & Articles Hardware Software Video & discussion Project ???. What are the 5 basic categories of computer hardware?. Hardware. Input devices Output devices CPU, RAM, BIOS, controllers Secondary storage devices Network and telecom devices

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Tonight s agenda l.jpg

Tonight’s Agenda

  • Internet Links & Articles

  • Hardware

  • Software

  • Video & discussion

  • Project

  • ???


What are the 5 basic categories of computer hardware l.jpg

What are the 5 basic categories of computer hardware?


Hardware l.jpg

Hardware

  • Input devices

  • Output devices

  • CPU, RAM, BIOS, controllers

  • Secondary storage devices

  • Network and telecom devices

    Do you see the system theme continuing here? Input, processing, output, storage, control/feedback mechanisms?


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Calculating pre-computer

  • Counting on fingers and toes

  • Abacus: manipulating stones or beads to count

    • The word calculate comes from calculus, the Latin word for small stone

  • First mechanical adding machine

    • Invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642

    • Wheels to move counters

  • Machines in the age of industrialization

    • Mechanical loom with cards punched with holes


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Early computing

  • Charles Babbage and the Analytical Engine

    • 19th century

    • Machine that calculated, stored values in memory and perform logical comparisons

    • Mechanical rather than electronics

  • Herman Hollerith and the 1890 census

    • Punched cards to record census data (where did these come from??)

    • Cards read in a tabulating machine

    • Hollerith’s company went onto become IBM


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Electronic computers

  • ENIAC – first electronic and digital computer

    • 1946

    • Programmable

    • 5000 calculations per second

    • Used vacuum tubes

    • First generation computer

    • Drawbacks: size and could only run 1 program


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Next wave of computing

  • Second generation, late 1950s

    • Transistors replace the vacuum tubes

    • 200,000 to 250,000 calculations per second

  • Third generation, mid 1960s

    • Integrated circuitry, miniaturization

  • Fourth generation, 1971

    • Further miniaturization of circuits

    • Multiprogramming and virtual storage

  • Fifth generation, 1980s

    • Millions of calculations per second


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Microcomputers (a.k.a. PC’s)

  • 1975, ALTAIR, flicking switches

  • 1977, Commodore and Radio Shack produce personal computers

  • 1979, Apple computer – garage built w/RS parts, the fastest selling PC so far

  • 1982, IBM introduces the PC which helps change the market

  • 1984, Apple Macintosh, GUI, mouse, windows, 32-bit OS


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Computer System Categories


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Microcomputer Systems

  • Personal Computer (PC) – microcomputer for use by an individual

  • Desktop – fit on an office desk

  • Laptop – small, portable PC

  • Smaller devices??? Other devices???


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Microcomputer Systems

  • Workstation – a powerful, networked PC for business professionals

  • Network Server – more powerful microcomputers that coordinate telecommunications and resource sharing in small networks


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How corporate buyers choose PCs

  • Solid performance at a reasonable price

  • Operating system ready

  • Connectivity – reliable network interface or wireless capability

  • Focus on task-specific functions rather than extras

  • Other considerations?

  • How is this different than home purchases?


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Terminals – outdated or reborn?

  • Devices that allow access to a network

  • Dumb terminals – keyboard and video monitor with limited processing

  • Intelligent terminals – modified networked PCs or network computers

  • Network terminals or computers

    • Windows terminals depend on network servers for software, processing and storage – virtual sessions?

    • Internet terminals depend the Internet for operating systems and software – UNIVERSAL CLIENT??


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Information Appliances

  • Hand-held microcomputer devices – netbooks?

  • Personal digital assistants (PDA)

  • BlackBerry – iphone – cell phones – etc

  • Ipad - tablets

  • Video-game consoles

  • Other


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Midrange systems

  • High-end network servers

  • Minicomputers for scientific research and industrial process monitoring

  • Less costly to buy, operate and maintain than mainframe


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Mainframe Computer Systems

  • Large, fast powerful computer systems

  • Large primary and secondary storage capacity

  • High transaction processing

  • Complex computations

  • More???????


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Supercomputer Systems

  • Extremely powerful systems

  • Scientific, engineering and business applications at extremely high speeds

  • Global weather forecasting, military defense

  • Parallel processing with thousands of microprocessors

  • Billions of operations per second

  • Millions of dollars

  • +


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Computer hardware functions

  • Input

    • Keyboards, mice, optical scanners

    • Convert data into electronic form

  • Processing

    • Central Processing Unit (CPU)

      • Arithmetic-logic unit performs the arithmetic functions

      • Control unit

  • Output

    • Video display units, printers, etc.

    • Convert electronic information into human-intelligible form


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Computer hardware functions

  • Storage

    • Primary Storage Unit or memory

    • Secondary Storage

      • Magnetic disks and Optical disks

  • Control

    • Control unit of the CPU

    • Controls the other components of the computer

  • Peripherals


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Moore’s Law

Where are we now? Still true?


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Storage tradeoffs


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Computer Storage Fundamentals

  • Binary representation

    • Data are processed and stored in computer system through the presence or absence of signals

    • Either ON or OFF

  • ON = number 1

  • OFF = number 0


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Bit and Byte

  • Bit (short for binary digit)

    • Smallest element of data

    • Either zero or one

  • Byte

    • Group of eight bits which operate as a single unit

    • Represents one character or number


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Representing characters in bytes


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Computers use binary system to calculate


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Measuring storage capacities

  • Kilobyte (KB): one thousand bytes

  • Megabyte (MB): one million bytes

  • Gigabyte (GB): one billion bytes

  • Terabyte (TB): one trillion bytes

  • Petabyte (PB): one quadrillion bytes


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Direct and sequential access


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Semiconductor memory

  • Microelectronic semiconductor memory chips

  • Used for primary storage

  • Advantage:

    • Small size

    • Fast

    • Shock and temperature resistance

  • Disadvantage:

    • Volatility: must have uninterrupted electric power or lose memory

  • Memristors – the missing component


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Two types of semiconductor memory

  • RAM: random access memory

    • Primary storage medium

    • Volatile memory

    • Read/write memory

  • ROM: read only memory

    • Permanent storage

    • (typically) Can be read but cannot be overwritten – modern chips can but only on the system level

    • Frequently used programs burnt into chips during manufacturing

    • Used to store firmware


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Flash drive

  • Permanent storage

  • Semiconductor memory

  • Small chip with thousands of transistors

  • Easily transported

  • What about solid state hard drives?

Source: Courtesy of Lexar Media.


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Magnetic Disks

  • Used for secondary storage

  • Fast access and high storage capacity

Source: Corbis.

Source: Quantum.


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Types of magnetic disks

  • Floppy disks

    • Magnetic disk inside a plastic jacket

  • Hard disk drives

    • Magnetic disk, access arms, and read/write heads in sealed module

  • RAID (Redundant arrays of independent disks)

    • Disk arrays of interconnected hard disk drives

    • Fault tolerant with multiple copies on several disks


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Magnetic Tape

  • Secondary storage

  • Tape reels and cartridges

  • Used in robotic automated drive assemblies

  • Archival storage and backup storage


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Optical Disks


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Uses of optical disks

  • Image processing

    • Long term storage of historical files of images

    • Scan documents and store on optical disks

  • Publishing medium for fast access to reference materials

    • Catalogs, directories, etc.

  • Interactive multimedia applications

    • Video games, educational videos, etc.


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Radio Frequency Identification

  • RFID

  • Tag and identify mobile objects

    • E.g., store merchandise, postal packages, pets

  • Use RFID chips to transmit and receive radio signals

  • Chips half the size of a grain of sand

  • Passive chips:

    • do not have power source and derive power from signal in reader

  • Active chips:

    • Self-powered


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RFID versus bar codes

  • RFID

    • Scan from greater distance

    • Can store data

    • Allows more information to be tracked

  • Privacy concerns due to invisible nature


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Computer

Software

System

Software

Application

Software

General-

Purpose

Programs

Application-

Specific

Programs

System

Management

Programs

System

Development

Programs

Software


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Operating System Functions

  • Provides a user interface

    • Command-driven, Menu driven

    • GUI (graphical user interface)

  • Manages hardware – CPU, memory, storage, communications, & I/O

  • File Management

  • Task Management


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User

Interface

Resource

Management

Task

Management

File

Management

Utilities

and Other

Functions

Operating System Overview


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Operating System Types

  • DOS – Windows 3.1 (3.11)

  • MacOS – pre OS X

  • Windows 95/98/Me

  • Windows NT - 3.51, 4, 2000, XP, 2003

  • Win Vista & 7

  • UNIX, LINUX, & MacOS X??

  • Are there others?


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Software Utilities

  • Many former 3rd party utilities are now nested as standard OS components

  • File Management/transfer/remote access

  • System Maintenance & Disk Utilities

  • Anti-virus & firewalls

  • Zip file programs

  • Others??? Name some . . . .


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Programming Languages

  • Assembly/machine language

  • FORTRAN, COBOL, Pascal, Basic

  • C/C++/C# (the code behind Unix & Linux)

  • Visual Basic

  • SQL (for database development)

  • XHTML, XML, CSS (web pages)

  • Java Script, PHP, ASP, Perl, etc (adds programming power to web pages)

  • 4GLs – A.I. & non-procedural/natural languages


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Machine Languages

Use binary coded

instructions

High Level Languages

Use brief statements

Markup Languages

Use embedded

control codes

1001 1001

1100 1101

<H1>First heading</H>

<!ELEMENT Product

(#Item | manuf)>

Compute X = Y + Z

Assembler Languages

Use symbolic coded

instructions

Fourth Generation

Languages

Use natural statements

Object-Oriented

Languages

Define objects that

contain data and actions

SUM THE FOLLOWINGNUMBERS

LOD Y

ADD Z

Document.write

(“Hi There”)

Categories of Programming Languages

  • Evolving towards natural language . . .


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Application design

  • What are your Inputs?

  • What is the desired Output?

  • Processing logic – How do we get there?

  • Code – Write the program.

  • Test the program and adjust if needed.

  • Documentation – So that future alterations and improvements can be easily made.


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Software acquisition

  • Buy

  • Buy and modify

  • Build in-house

  • Outsource to build


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Major Software Applications

  • Office Apps -- MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access, Outlook

  • Enterprise Databases -- Oracle

  • Groupware -- Lotus Notes, GroupWise

  • Web Authoring -- FrontPage & Dreamweaver

  • Web -- Netscape & IE, also FTP, chat, IM, newsgroup readers, email clients, Others?

  • Microsoft Visio & multimedia (plug-ins)

  • Art & DTP -- Photoshop, Paint shop pro, Quark

  • Accounting, CAD/CAM

  • OTHERS – What do you use??


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