The Galapagos mockingbirds differ only slightly in size, shape, and coloration. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Galapagos mockingbirds differ only slightly in size, shape, and coloration. Nesomimus melanotis. Nesomimus macdonaldi. Nesomimus parvulus. Nesomimus trifasciatus. Darwin reasoned that they are similar because they share a common ancestor. N. melanotis. N. macdonaldi. N. trifasciatus.

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The Galapagos mockingbirds differ only slightly in size, shape, and coloration.

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The Galapagos mockingbirds differ only slightly in size, shape, and coloration.

Nesomimus melanotis

Nesomimus macdonaldi

Nesomimus parvulus

Nesomimus trifasciatus

Darwin reasoned that they are similar because they share a common ancestor.

N. melanotis

N. macdonaldi

N. trifasciatus

N. parvulus


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Evidence for Evolution

  • Evidence that Species are Related

    • Geographic proximity of similar but distinct species.

    • Homologies: structural, developmental, and genetic.


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Structural homology

Humerus

Radius and ulna

Carpals

Metacarpals

Phalanges

Bird

Bat

Turtle

Human

Horse

Seal


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Developmental homology

Both the chick and

the human have gill

pouches and tails

Gill pouch

Tail

Chick

Human


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Present-day sloth

Fossil sloth


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Evidence for Evolution

  • Evidence that Species Change over Time:

    • Law of succession

    • Evidence of extinctions in the fossil record

    • Vestigial traits


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Human coccyx

Capuchin monkey tail

(used for balance, locomotion)


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Erect hair on chimp

(insulation, emotional display)

Human goosebumps


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Box 21.2 Figure 1a

Analogy: When similarities result from convergent evolution

1m

1m

Ichthyosaur

Common dolphin

Whales and

dolphins

Monotremes

Ichthyosaurs

Pterosaurs

Elephants

Marsupials

Synapsids

Dinosaurs

Primates

Rodents

Lizards

Birds

The members of lineages

between the dolphins and

ichthyosaurs do not have

adaptions like:

- streamlined bodies

- long jaws filled with teeth

- fins and flippers

The dolphin and ichthyosaur

lineages are far apart on the

evolutionary tree, suggesting

that they are not closely

related


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Box 21.2 Figure 1b

Homology: When similarities are inherited from a common ancestor

Fruit fly HOM complex

Human Hox complex

abdAabdB

lab

pb

Dfd

Antp

b-1

b-2

b-3

b-4

b-5

b-6

b-7

b-8

b-9

Ubx

Molluscs

(snails, clams,

squid)

Echinoderms

(sea stars,

sand dollars)

Chordates

(vertebrates)

Arthropods

(insects, spiders,

crustaceans)

Annelids

(segmented

worms)

Flatworms

As shown in the two boxes

above, the loci found in the

Hox and HOM complexes

of fruit flies and humans have

similar sequences and are in

the same order on their

chromosomes


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