The Galapagos mockingbirds differ only slightly in size, shape, and coloration. Nesomimus melanotis. Nesomimus macdonaldi. Nesomimus parvulus. Nesomimus trifasciatus. Darwin reasoned that they are similar because they share a common ancestor. N. melanotis. N. macdonaldi. N. trifasciatus.
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The Galapagos mockingbirds differ only slightly in size, shape, and coloration.
Darwin reasoned that they are similar because they share a common ancestor.
Structural homology shape, and coloration.
Radius and ulna
Developmental homology shape, and coloration.
Both the chick and
the human have gill
pouches and tails
Present-day sloth shape, and coloration.
Human coccyx shape, and coloration.
Capuchin monkey tail
(used for balance, locomotion)
Erect hair on chimp shape, and coloration.
(insulation, emotional display)
Box 21.2 Figure 1a shape, and coloration.
Analogy: When similarities result from convergent evolution
The members of lineages
between the dolphins and
ichthyosaurs do not have
- streamlined bodies
- long jaws filled with teeth
- fins and flippers
The dolphin and ichthyosaur
lineages are far apart on the
evolutionary tree, suggesting
that they are not closely
Box 21.2 Figure 1b shape, and coloration.
Homology: When similarities are inherited from a common ancestor
Fruit fly HOM complex
Human Hox complex
As shown in the two boxes
above, the loci found in the
Hox and HOM complexes
of fruit flies and humans have
similar sequences and are in
the same order on their