Work-Life Harmony:
Download
1 / 24

Work-Life Harmony: Productivity AND Peace E. Jeffrey Hill, Ph.D., CFLE BYU School of Family Life jeff_hill@byu - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Work-Life Harmony: Productivity AND Peace E. Jeffrey Hill, Ph.D., CFLE BYU School of Family Life jeff_hill@byu.edu. Background Mission: to make valuable contributions to families by encouraging, sponsoring, coordinating, and disseminating BYU’s intellectual effort related to the family

Related searches for Work-Life Harmony: Productivity AND Peace E. Jeffrey Hill, Ph.D., CFLE BYU School of Family Life jeff_hill@byu

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha

Download Presentation

Work-Life Harmony: Productivity AND Peace E. Jeffrey Hill, Ph.D., CFLE BYU School of Family Life jeff_hill@byu

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Work-Life Harmony:Productivity AND PeaceE. Jeffrey Hill, Ph.D., CFLEBYU School of Family Lifejeff_hill@byu.edu


Background

Mission: to make valuable contributions to families by encouraging, sponsoring, coordinating, and disseminating BYU’s intellectual effort related to the family

Sponsors 30 projects in the United States and 10 other countries (Australia Bosnia, Cambodia, China, Japan, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, UK, and Vietnam)

Work-Life Harmony Team

Dr. E. Jeffrey Hill, BYU and IBM

Dr. Graeme Russell, Aequus Partners

Ellen Galinsky, CEO Families and Work Institute

Dr. Joseph Grzywacz, Wake Forest University

Dr. D. Russell Crane, BYU

Brigham Young UniversityFamily Studies Center


Overview:

  • Metaphor of Harmony vs. Balance

  • Work-Life Harmony Conceptual Model

  • Singapore National Study of Work-Life Harmony

    • National Measure of Work-Life Harmony

    • Key Findings

  • IBM Global Work and Life Issues Surveys (1986-2007)

    • Key Findings


Work-Life Metaphors

  • Metaphors influence our thoughts

  • “Balance” and “Juggling”: are dominant work-family metaphors

  • Scarcity mentality based on time

  • Assumes a “Zero-Sum” game

  • Emphasis on conflict

  • Productivity comes at the expense of individual peace.


Harmony: A Better Metaphor

  • Harmony instead of Balance

  • Person is the composer, orchestrator, and director of his/her own life.

  • Life roles may harmonize or be dissonant (Work and family are pre-eminent)

  • Emphasis on facilitation as well as conflict

  • Productivity AND peace are BOTH possible simultaneously


2006 Singapore National Study of Work-Life HarmonyObjectives of Study

For the MCYS

  • Develop Singapore National Study of Work-Life Harmony

  • Develop a National Measure of Work-Life Harmony (Establish a scaled benchmark to measure progress over time in Singapore)

  • Explore relationship of Work-Life Harmony to work and family outcomes (especially fertility)

  • Provide data for research-based policy discussion

    For the Family Studies Center

  • Validate scholarly model of the

    Work-Family Interface in Singapore

  • Publish work-family scholarly articles in leading academic journals


WORK-LIFE HARMONY CONCEPTUAL MODEL

(08-01-06)

Methodology:Conceptual model includes predictors and outcomes of work-life harmony.

(A) Work Characteristics

(B) Individual Characteristics

(C) Family Characteristics

(F) Work-to-Home

Conflict/Facilitation

(F) Home-to-Work

Conflict/Facilitation

(E) Home-to-Work

Adaptive Strategies

(D) Work-to-Home

Adaptive Strategies

(G) Work/Life

Harmony

(H) Work Vitality

(I) Personal Vitality

(J) Family Vitality

(K) Community

Vitality

*Focus groups were conducted to validate the model for Singapore


Development Process

Expert consultation (Russ Crane, Ellen Galinsky, Joseph Grzywacz, E. Jeffrey Hill and Graeme Russell)

Focus groups in Singapore (N = 93)

Item construction

Pilot study (N = 435)

Scale reliability analysis

Final survey (N = 1601)

Confirm scale reliability

Create measure

Singapore Measure of Work-Life Harmony


Singapore Measure of Work-Life Harmony

The Questions

  • All in all, I am able to effectively integrate my work responsibilities and family/personal aspirations.

  • How easy or difficult is it for you to integrate your work and your personal/family life?

  • My job fits well with:

    • My individual personality

    • My desire to be happily married.

    • My desired number of children.

    • My desire to spend time with my family/children.

    • My preferred pace (tempo) of life.

    • My desire for social interaction (e.g. time with friends).

    • My personal aspirations.

9 Item Measure

Coefficient Alpha = .91

Highly Reliable


Methodology:Final survey is comprehensive and nationally representative of Singapore.

  • Survey consists of 155 questions and represents the conceptual model plus important demographics.

  • Sample is nationally representative of employed persons in Singapore (N = 1601)

    Margin of Error: Overall = +/- 2%

    (Male = +/- 3%; Female = +/- 4%)

  • Interviews conducted by

    aAdvantage Consulting Group

    (35-45 minute interview)

  • Oversampling of 100 mothers with

    pre-school children (weighted results)


Calculation of the measure

Mean of nine questions in the scale is calculated.

(Range from 1=no harmony to 4=total harmony)

Mean is scaled from 0 to 100.

0=no harmony, 100=total harmony

Singapore Work-Life Harmony measure is:

Singapore National Measure of Work-Life Harmony

64


National Measure of Work-Life HarmonyPositive Link Between Work-Life Harmony and Fertility

  • Controlling for age, education, gender, and HH income, the odds of reporting fewer children than ideal is more than two times greater for those with little work-life harmony than those with high work-life harmony.

  • Controlling for age, education, gender, and HH income, the odds of reporting fewer children than ideal coupled with no intention to have more children, is over 2X greater for participants with low work-life harmony than those with high work-life harmony.

Poor work-life harmony is associated with having fewer children than is believed to be ideal.


Summary of Singapore Results: Harmony=Productivity AND Peace

  • Business case for work-life harmony is strongly validated: it predicts valued work, personal, and family outcomes (Productivity AND Peace).

    • Greater job loyalty, satisfaction, opportunity, performance

    • Less job attrition

    • Greater life satisfaction, physical health, mental health

    • Enhanced marital and family satisfaction

    • Higher fertility

  • Work-life harmony is predicted by:

    • Personal: Health, sleep, personal income

    • Work: Manager support and workplace flexibility

    • Family: Participation in family activities, and having both children and elders living in the home.

  • Employees express most interest in flexible work options (especially flextime) and paid leave

  • National Work-life Harmony Measure can be used as a benchmark to measure progress over time


IBM Work and Life Issues Surveys (1986-2007)

US (‘86, ‘91, ‘96); Global (‘01, ‘04, ‘07)

  • Industry leading surveys

  • 21 years of trending available

  • 2007 IBM Global Work and Life Issues Survey Facts

    • 75 countries

    • 10 languages

    • 88 core questions

    • 59k invitees, 43% response rate

    • 52k write-in comments


  • 80

    Working from Home is Acceptable

    Hours Worked

    Flexibility in Where Work is Done

    40

    Work/Life Difficulty

    0

    1996

    2001

    2004

    2007

    Findings at IBM: Flexibility = Productivity AND peace.


    2007 IBM OVERALL %

    • Flexibility in WHERE work gets done 36

    • Flexibility in WHEN work gets done 25

    • Greater management acceptance of W/L 25

    • Child care services 21

    • Greater W/L education for employees 21

    • Part-time, job share, reduced hours 16

    • Focus on needs of older workers 15

    FIRST-LINE MANAGERS %

    Greater management acceptance of W/L 32

    Flexibility in WHERE work gets done 30

    Child care services 22

    Flexibility in WHEN work gets done20

    Greater W/L education for managers 18

    Elder care services 15

    Part-time, job share reduced hours 15

    WOMEN %

    • Flexibility in WHERE work gets done 35

    • Greater management acceptance of W/L 28

    • Part-time, job share, reduced hours 24

    • Child care services 24

    • Flexibility in WHEN work gets done 24

    • Greater W/L education for employees17

    • Elder care services 12

    MEN %

    • Flexibility in WHERE work gets done 36

    • Flexibility in WHEN work gets done26

    • Greater management acceptance of W/L 25

    • Greater W/L education for employees 22

    • Child care services20

    • Focus on needs of older workers16 16

    • Part-time, job share, reduced hours 13

    IBM employees perceive that greater flexibility is the key to greater harmony.


    Globally, work-at-home has increased from 5% in ’01, to 10% in ’04, to 15% in ‘07


    Flexibility and Harmony: Finding an Extra Day per Week

    • Study uses “Break Point” analysis: Mathematical point in hours per week at which 50% of respondents report difficulty managing work-life demands.

    • Overall Break Point:

      • 52 hours/week for those without flexibility

      • 60 hours/week for those with flexibility

      • Benefit of 8 hours/week (an extra day per week)

    • Break Point for Women with Pre-schoolers

      • 32 hours/week for those without flexibility

      • 43 hours/week for those with flexibility

      • Benefit of 11 hours/week (an extra day per week)

    Hill, E. J., Hawkins, A. J., Ferris, M., & Weitzman, M. (2001). Finding an extra day a week: The positive effect of job flexibility on work and family life balance. Family Relations 50(1), 49-58

    *Data from IBM 1996 United States Work and Life Issues Survey


    60-Hour Dual-Earner Work Week Promotes Harmony

    • Comparison of three couple work arrangements:

      • FT/FT: Both partners work 40+ hours per week

      • 60 Hour: Both partners work and at lest one works part-time

      • FT/NE: One partner works full-time, the other is not employed.

    • 60-hour group compares favorably to other groups

      • Greater job flexibility

      • Improved work-family fit

      • Enhanced family satisfaction

      • Less work-to-family conflict

    • 1.5 jobs per family seems to work best

    Hill, E. J., Mead, N. T., Dean, L. R., Hafen, D. M., Gadd, R., Palmer, A. A., & Ferris, M. (2006). Researching the 60-hour dual-earner work week: An alternative to the “opt out revolution.” American Behavioral Scientist. 49, 1184-1203.

    *Data from IBM 2004 Global Work and Life Issues Survey


    Dinnertime and Harmony

    • Long work hours associated with:

      • lower perceived life success

      • poorer family relationship quality

      • greater work-family conflict

      • perceptions of unhealthy workplace

    • Dinnertime mediated all these relationships.

    • Greater work-life harmony is achieved when employees use flexibility to maintain regular family mealtime, even in the face of long work hours.

    Jacob, J., Allen, S. M., Hill, E. J.Mead, N. L. (In Press). Work Interference with Dinnertime as a Mediator and Moderator Between Work Hours and Work and Family Outcomes. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal.

    *Data from IBM 2004 Global Work and Life Issues Survey


    Work and Family Facilitation and Harmony

    • Qualitative analysis of 13,315 free response comments from 13 countries to two questions asking about how work and family facilitate one another.

    • Work-to-family facilitation

      • Work place flexibility

      • Financial benefits

      • Ability to keep family commitments

    • Family-to-work facilitation

      • Supportive family relationships

      • Psychological benefits of home

    Hill, E. J.,Allen, S., Jacob, J. I., Bair, A. F., Bikhazi, S. L., Cox, A., Martinengo, G., Parker, T. T., & Walker, E. (2007). Work-family facilitation: Generating theory using a qualitative assessment. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9(4), 507-526

    *Data from IBM 2004 Global Work and Life Issues Survey


    Understanding Workplace Flexibility:Gender and Life-Stage are Key

    • Study flexibility usage during 5 life stages

      • <35 years old, no children

      • Children, oldest less than 6

      • Children, both less than 6 and 6+

      • Children, just 6+

      • >45 years old, no children

    • Curvilinear relationship in use of flexibility

      • At stage 1 no differences in flexibility use

      • Women use flexibility more during stages 2-4

      • Few differences at stage 5

    • Gender and life stage are key to understanding flexibility

    Hill, E. J.,Jacob, J. I., Shannon, L., Martinengo, G., & Crouter, A. (In Press). Exploring the Relationship of Workplace Flexibility, Gender, and Life Stage to Family-to-Work Conflict, and Stress and Burnout. Community, Work and Family, 11(2).

    *Data from WFD-Sloan Multi-Organization Database


    Implications

    • The metaphor of harmony is more productive than the metaphor of balance.

    • Workplace flexibility is an important tool to promote harmony.

      • However, one size does not fit all

    • Research supports the business and personal case for harmony.

    • Productivity AND peace are BOTH possible simultaneously.


    Work-Life Harmony:Productivity AND PeaceTHANK YOU!E. Jeffrey Hill, Ph.D., CFLEBYU School of Family Lifejeff_hill@byu.edu


    ad
  • Login