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Pengolahan Citra. Sistem Pengolahan Citra Digital. Sistem Pengolahan Citra Digital.

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Pengolahan Citra

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Pengolahan citra l.jpg

Pengolahan Citra

Sistem Pengolahan Citra Digital


Sistem pengolahan citra digital l.jpg

Sistem Pengolahan Citra Digital

  • Merupakan suatu kesatuan yang saling berhubungan atau terintegrasi untuk membentuk suatu sistem antara data, perangkat keras, perangkat lunak, prosedure pengolahan, dan tenaga pelaksana dalam ekplorasi citra digital


Konsep dasar l.jpg

Konsep Dasar

  • Pengolahan citra digital merupakan manipulasi dan interprestasi digital dari citra dengan bantuan komputer. Konsep dasar pengolahan citra dengan data masukan pokok (internal data) berupa langkah berikut :

    • Pengumpulan data yang relevan, yaitu citra digital

    • Klasifikasi atau pengelompokan dengan cara pengkelasan

    • Penyusunan data sesuai kelas

    • Perhitungan dan manipulasi

    • Pengujian ketelitian dan perhitungan

    • Penyimpulan dan rekapitulasi hasil

    • Informasi


Software l.jpg

Software

  • Aplikasi Grafik

  • Pengolahan Citra Design

    • Rancangan Arsitektur

    • Rancangan Design

    • Animasi

  • Pengolahan Citra

    • Pengolah Citra

    • Pembuatan Efek

    • Contras

    • Brightness

    • Emboss


Hardware l.jpg

Hardware

  • Perangkat Input

    • Scanner

    • Digital Camera

  • Perangkat Output

    • Printer

    • Plotter

    • Monitor

  • Aspek penentuan kualitas citra dari perangkat keras :

    • Resolusi

    • Warna

    • Kecepatan

    • Kapasitas


Proses pengolahan data citra secara umum l.jpg

Proses

Kompresi

ADC

Citra

Citra Digital

Media Penyimpan

Proses

Dekompresi

Pengkodean Bit ke Tabel Warna

Citra Digital

Layar

Proses Pengolahan Data Citra Secara Umum


Perangkat input data l.jpg

Perangkat Input Data

  • Perangkat input data yang digunakan diantaranya perangkat penangkap atau capture citra yang bekerja membaca citra dengan cara dijelajahi dan kemudian dilakukan proses konfersi kedalam data digital.

  • Perangkat capture ini memiliki 3 (tiga) elemen dasar :

    • Sensor intensitas cahaya

    • Penjelajah untuk merekam seluruh bagian citra

    • Analog Digital Converter (ADC)


Perangkat output data l.jpg

CPU

Layar

Display Processor

Memory

Perangkat Output data

  • Diantara perangkat keras output diantaranya layar menggunakan perangkat pengolah data yang dikenal sebagai Card VGA atau Display Processor dengan cara kerja seperti terlihat dalam gambar berikut :

  • Display ProcessorCPUMemoryDisplay Processor

  • Layar

  • I/O

  • Display Processor akan mengubah digital ke analog, digunakan untuk berinteraksi dengan CPU dan mengontrol operasi dari display device


Mode layar monitor l.jpg

Mode Layar Monitor

  • Mode Teks :

    • 25 x 80

    • 25 x 40

  • Mode Grafiks (Resolusi)

    • 320 x 200

    • 640 x 200

    • 640 x 400

    • 800 x 600

    • 640 x 480

    • 1024 x 768

    • 1180 x 1024

    • 1600 x 1400

  • Dibedakan oleh adanya Pixel  Resolusi Layar Monitor

  • Resolusi adalah jumlah penembakan titik pada horizontal atau vertical tiap pixel oleh elektron gun. Resolusi merupakan jumlah pixel percentimer vertical dan horizontal.


Monitor l.jpg

Monitor

  • Tipe Resolusi

    • High : Penampungan jumlah pixel pada layar maksimum

    • Midle

    • Low

  • Tipe Monitor

    • Monocrome

    • CGA (Color Graphic Adapter)

    • EGA (Enchanded Graphic Adapter)

    • VGA (Video Graphic Array)

    • SVGA (Super VGA)

    • XGA (eXtra Graphic Array)

  • Warna yang dihasilkan pada setiap monitor selain tergantung pada jenis monitor juga tergantung dari interface yang berupa Card Monitor seperti VGA Card.

  • Layar dari ukuran monitor terbatas dan tidak akan tampak jelas dilihat dari jarak jauh, untuk keperluan tersebut digunakan Computer Display Projektor.


Sistem monitor l.jpg

Sistem Monitor

  • Aspek Ratio (Y/X)

    • Perbandingan antara Y dan X yang digunakan untuk mendapatkan panjang yang sama antara garis vertical-horizontal yang dibutuhkan yaitu vertical 3 pixel dan horizontal 4 pixel.

  • Random Scan Monitor

    • Pengaksesan setiap titik secara langsung yang digunakan untuk menelusuri titik pada tiap screen dengan cukup[ diwakili oleh 1 pixel

    • Raster Scan Monitor

    • Penggambaran suatu gambar yang sama dengan penelusuran setiap garis

    • Refresh rate : 30 – 60 frames/sec

    • Frame = banyak pixel pada layar

    • Interlaced System : Teknik untuk mengatasi layar bergoyang, dengan cara menampilkan tiap frame secara bergantian.


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Jumlah Warna

  • Setiap Pixel dapat menampilakan 1 warna

  • Total warna yang dapat ditampilkan dapat ditentukan, sebagai contoh

    Monitor resolusi 800 x 600 warna yang ditampilkan 16,7 Juta warna, memori yang dibutuhkan  16,7 Juta = 24 Bit

    Jumlah Pixel = 800 x 600 = 480.000

    1 Pixel  24 Bit = 3 Byte

    480.000 x 3 / 1024 = 1440 Kb = 1,44 Mb


Image media types l.jpg

Image Media Types

  • Images can be generally divided into two formats:

    • Bitmapped or Raster images

    • Draw-type or Vector graphics or Metafile images

  • Bitmapped images are stored as an array of pixels. It represents the image as an array of dots, called pixels

  • Vector graphics are stored as geometric shape to represent the image


Bitmaps image l.jpg

Bitmaps Image

  • A pixel is the smallest element of resolution on a computer screen (Screen Resolution)

  • A pixel is the basic unit of a digital images. Digital image is a picture that may be stored in, displayed on, processed by a computer.

  • As mentioned, bitmap is composed of a matrix elements called pixels

  • Each pixel can be in a specific colour and each pixel consists of two or more colors.


Bitmaps image15 l.jpg

Bitmaps Image

  • The range of these colours is known as the colour depth.

  • The color depth determined “How much data in bits used to determined the number of colors”.

  • Colour depth is measured in bits per pixel

    • Remember: a bit (binary digit) is either 1 or 0 and that there are eight bits in a byte


Colour depth l.jpg

Colour depth

  • 1 bit per pixel = 2 colours (monochrome)

  • 2 bits per pixel = 4 colours

  • 4 bits per pixel = 16 colours

  • 8 bits per pixel = 256 colours

    • Generally good enough for colour images

  • 16 bits per pixel = 65536 colours

    • Better quality for photograph-like images, also known as high colour

  • 24 bits per pixel = >16 million possible colours

    • Used to recreate photo realistic images, also known as true colour


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Bitmaps Image

  • The more colours that are allowed per pixel, the greater the size of the image

  • The number of pixels is related to the size of file that required to store an image.

  • Remember, two factors effect the size file bitmap are:

    • Resolution

    • Color Depth


Bitmaps images l.jpg

Bitmaps images

Original image

Shown

magnified


Calculating the size of a raster image l.jpg

Calculating the sizeof a raster image

  • Where:

    • Width of the images measured in pixels

    • Height of the images measured in pixels

    • Colour depth is the number of bits used for color measured in bits per pixel

  • Remember:

    • 1024 bytes = 1 kilobyte (KB)

    • 1024 kilobytes = 1 megabyte (MB)


Example l.jpg

Example

  • A 640 x 480 pixel image in 24-bit colour would require how much disk space?


Popular bitmap formats l.jpg

Popular bitmap formats

  • Microsoft bitmap (.bmp)

    • Used in microsoft windows

  • TIFF - Tagged Image File Format (.tif)

    • Used for faxing images (amongst other things)

  • JPEG - Joint Photographic Expert Group (.jpg)

    • Useful for storing photographic images

  • GIF - Graphics Interchange Format (.gif)

    • Used a lot on web sites

  • PNG - Portable Network Graphics (.png)

    • A new format for web graphics

  • PCD – Kodak photo CD

    • A new format for store image in a compressed form on a CD


Advantages and disadvantages of using bitmap images l.jpg

Advantages and Disadvantages of using bitmap images

  • Advantages

    • Convey detail of information quickly

    • Real life

  • Disadvantages

    • Depend on a Resolution

    • Effect to the image quality

    • Size file is big


Software to create bitmap images l.jpg

Software to create bitmap images

  • Popular PC packages include:

    • Microsoft Paint

      • Included with microsoft windows

    • Microsoft PhotoDraw 2000

      • http://www.microsoft.com/office/photodraw/

    • Adobe Photoshop

      • http://www.adobe.com/products/photoshop/main.html

    • Paint Shop Pro

      • http://www.jasc.com/psp6.html

    • Macromedia Fireworks

      • http://www.macromedia.com/software/fireworks/productinfo/


Vector images l.jpg

Vector images

  • Vector images are stored as the set of graphic primitives required to represent the image

  • A graphic primitive is a simple graphic based on drawing elements or objects such as shape

    • e.g. square, line, ellipse, arc, etc.

  • The image consists of a set of commands (mathematical equations) that are drawn the object when needed.


Vector images25 l.jpg

Vector images

  • Storing and representing images by mathematical equations is called vector graphics or Object Oriented graphics.

  • Each primitive object has various attributes that go to make up the entire image

    • e.g. x-y location, fill colour, line colour, line style, etc.

  • Example:

    • RECTANGLE : rectangle top, left, width, height, color is ( 0, 0, 200, 200, red)

    • CIRCLE : circle top, left, radius, color

    • LINE : Line x1, y1, x2, y2, color


Vector images26 l.jpg

Vector images

  • Vector image or vector graphics can be resized without losing the integrity of the original image.

  • Scaling a vector is a mathematical operation - only the attributes change, the image is unaffected


Primitive geometric drawing objects l.jpg

Shapes

Circle

Ellipse

Rectangle

Square

Pie segment

Triangle

Pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, etc

Basic

Line

Polyline

Arc

Bezier curve

Text

Font, weight

Primitive geometric drawing objects


Scaling vector graphics l.jpg

Shown

magnified

Original image

Scaling vector graphics


Advantages and disadvantages of using vector image l.jpg

Advantages and Disadvantages of using vector image

  • Advantages

    • Relatively small amount of data required to represent the image.

    • Therefore, it does not required a lot of memory to store

    • Easier to manipulate

  • Disadvantages

    • Limited level of detail than can be presented in an image


Software to create images l.jpg

Software to create images

  • Graphics programs are tools that allow an artist to create and edit designs used in multimedia applications.

  • Generally, graphics programs can be categorized as:

    • Drawing programs

      • Creating draw type graphics

      • Provide freehand. Example geometric shape

      • Example : Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, Macromedia Freehand

    • Paint programs

      • Those creating bitmaps

      • Useful in creating original art

      • Example: Paint Shop Pro

    • Image editing programs

      • Making changes to existing images, such as manipulating the brightness or contrast, applying textures, patterns

      • Examples : Adobe Photoshop, Corel PhotoPaint


Vector formats l.jpg

Vector formats

  • Windows metafile (.wmf)

    • Used by Microsoft Windows

  • SVG - Scalable Vector Graphics (.svg)

    • A new format devised for the web

  • CGM - Computer Graphics Metafile (.cgm)

    • Older format commonly used for clip art

  • Adobe PostScript (.ps)

    • A page description language used to control printers

  • Adobe Portable Document Format (.pdf)

    • A page description language common on the web

  • Drawing Exchange Format (.dfx)

    • Store 3D image created by design program AutoCAD

  • Encapsulated PostScript (.epf)

    • Professional printing: Illustration program, Adobe Systems, Desktop Publishing programs


3 dimensional graphic models l.jpg

3-Dimensional Graphic models

  • A 3D model is a variation on the vector format

  • The location of a 3-dimensional object is specified using x, y and z co-ordinates

  • Further primitives can be found in 3D models

    • Cube, sphere, pyramid, etc.

    • Camera, spotlight, texture, shading etc.

X

3D model

Y

Z


3 dimensional graphic models33 l.jpg

3-Dimensional Graphic models

  • 3D graphics offer the photorealistics effects that have you seen in TV, Computer Games

  • Examples, Motion Picture films such as:

    • Jurassic Park, Terminator 2, Lost World and Toy Story

  • Examples 3D programs:

    • Carigali Truespace

    • 3D Studio Max

    • Infini-D


3 dimensional graphic models34 l.jpg

3-Dimensional Graphic models


Hardware used to acquire images l.jpg

Hardware used to acquire images

  • Scanners and digital imaging products

  • Many forms of scanner

    • Drum

    • Flat-bed

    • Negative / slide

    • Hand-held

  • Important to check the optical resolution of the scanner

    • measured in dots per inch (DPI)


Hardware used to acquire images36 l.jpg

Hardware used to acquire images

  • Digital camera

    • Uses digital memory instead of film

    • Images are transferred to computer via a cable

    • Can be very high resolution

  • Stills from a camcorder or PC “web-cam” type camera

    • Home products tend to be low resolution


Hardware used to create edit images l.jpg

Hardware used to create / edit images

  • Graphics tablet and pen

    • Preferred by digital artists

    • Pressure sensitivity

  • Digitiser tablet

    • Preferred by technical artists

    • Mouse has accurate crosshair to help digitise drawings

Tablet and pen

Digitiser


Converting image formats l.jpg

Converting image formats

TrueType / PostScript Type font

Bitmapped font

Render as bitmap

Text

Bitmapped image

Vector image

Contour trace

Optical Character

Recognition (OCR)


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